Content

Click on second last column, verse count, to see details of that section

Gital is part of "The Mahabharata, Book 6: Bhishma Parva" which is authored by Krishna-Dwaipayana Vyasa. Chapter 1 of Gita is section 25 of book and chapter 18 is section 42 of the book. Mahabharat itself is made of 18 books.

R Yoga C #
one Arjun Visada Grief of Arjun
01 - 01DhtarastraWhat's going on? 1
02 - 21SanjayaHow the forces were set up 2
21 - 23ArjunChariot between armies, show me the enemy 3
24 - 28SanjayaDesciption of Arjun looking at relatives 4
28 - 46ArjunDoes not want to fight 5
47 - 47SanjayaArjun throws down his weapons 6
Two Sankhya Knowledge
01 - 01SanjayaIntroducing Krishna.
02 - 03KrishnaDont be weak, fight! 7
04 - 08Arjundont want to kill relatives 8
09 - 10SanjayaArjun refuses to fight and Krishna responds. 9
11 - 33KrishnaThe Self is indestructable. 10
33 - 38KrishnaIt is your duty to kill the men, if you don't you will be infamous.
39 - 53KrishnaYou must do karma(action) to attain Samadhi.
54 - 54ArjunQuestion 1: Characteristics of "fixed on contemplation" 11
55 - 72Krishna 12
Three Karma Action
01 - 02ArjunQuestion 2: Intellect vs. Action 13
03 - 35Krishna 14
36 - 36ArjunQuestion 3: Sin despite will 15
37 - 43Krishna 16
Four Jnana Wisdom
1 - 3Krishna
4 - 4ArjunQuestion 4: How do I know you were there at the begining. 17
5 - 42Krishna 18
Five Karma Sanyas Renunciation
01 - 01ArjunQuestion 5: Renounciation verses Action 19
02 - 29Krishna 20
Six Dhyana Meditation
01 - 32Krishna
33 - 34ArjunQuestion 6: Controlling mind equanimity 21
35 - 36Krishna 22
37 - 39ArjunQuestion 7: What happens if you do not control mind? 23
40 - 47Krishna 24
Seven Jnana vijnana Wisdom and Experience
01 - 30Krishna
Eight Aksara Brahma Imperishable Brahman
01 - 02ArjunQuestion 8: How does one know You? 25
03 - 28Krishna 26
Nine Rajavidya Ranaguhya Royal Path
01 - 34Krishna
Ten Vibhuti Manifestation
01 - 11Krishna
12 - 18ArjunTell me Your divine glories 27
19 - 42Krishna 28
Eleven Visvarupa Darsana Universal Form Vision
1 - 4ArjunArjun wants to see Krishna's divine from 29
5 - 8Krishna 30
9 - 14SanjayaArjun beholds the Universe as Krishna's divine form 31
15 - 30ArjunDescription of the divine form of Krishna 32
31 - 31ArjunTell me more about fear's form.
32 - 34Krishna 33
35 - 35SanjayaArjun with folded hands, bowing head in extreme fear 34
36 - 46ArjunPraise of Universal form, requests Krishna to be normal 35
47 - 49Krishna 36
50 - 50SanjayaKrishna returns to his supreme form to see if Arjun will still be scared 37
51 - 51ArjunFree from fear, mind composed 38
52 - 55Krishna 39
Twelve Bhakti The Devotional Yoga
1 - 1ArjunTell me more 1: Personal Form vs. Supreme Impersonal Reality 40
2 - 20Krishna 41
Thirteen Ksetra Ksetrajnavibhaga Field vs. Knower
1 - 34Krishna
Fourteen Gunatraya Vibhaga Three Basic Qualitites
1 - 20Krishna
21 - 21ArjunTell me more 2: Characteristic of who transcended three Gunas 42
22 - 27Krishna 43
Fifteen Purusottama Supreme Person
1 - 20Krishna
Sixteen Daivasurasampad Vibhaga Divine and Demonic
1 - 24Krishna
Seventeen Sraddhatraya Vibhaga Threefold Path
1 - 1ArjunTell me more 3: Satvik Rajasik or Tamasik 44
2 - 28Krishna 45
Eighteen Moksa Sannyasa Renunciation and Sacrifice
1 - 1ArjunTell me more 4: Renunciation and Relinquishment 46
2 - 72Krishna 47
73 - 73ArjunI got it 48
74 - 78SanjayaClosing 49
Total700 

Count by speaker

Dhtarastra10.2%
Sanjaya 415.8%
Arjun 8412%
Krishna 57482%

Translation by Kisari Mohan Ganguli is copied from Mahabharatonline, devnagri is copied from Wikisource.

Other resources

  1. Bhagavad Gita with Sankara Bhashya

Chapter 1 अर्जुनविषादयोगः

arjunaviṣādayogaḥ
Section 1
धृतराष्ट्र उवाच
dhṛtarāṣṭra uvāca
Dhritarashtra said,--
धर्मक्षेत्रे कुरुक्षेत्रे समवेता युयुत्सवः ।
मामकाः पाण्डवाश्चैव किमकुर्वत संजय ॥१-१॥
dharmakṣetre kurukṣetre samavetā yuyutsavaḥ
māmakāḥ pāṇḍavāś caiva kim akurvata sañjaya 1.1
Assembled together on the sacred plain of Kurukshetra from desire of fighting what did my sons and the Pandavas do. O Sanjaya.
Section 2

Pandav's Forces

संजय उवाच
San Ja Ya   oo Wa Cha

Sanjaya said

दृष्ट्वा तु पाण्डवानीकं व्यूढं दुर्योधनस्तदा ।
आचार्यमुपसंगम्य राजा वचनमब्रवीत् ॥१-२॥
Dri sh T Wa   Tu   Pan D Wa Nee Ka n   vYoo Dha m   Dur Yo Dha Na s Ta Daa
ācāryam upasaṅgamya rājā vacanam abravīt 1.2

Beholding the army of the Pandavas arrayed, king Duryodhana, approaching the preceptor (Drona) said these words:

पश्यैतां पाण्डुपुत्राणामाचार्य महतीं चमूम् ।
व्यूढां द्रुपदपुत्रेण तव शिष्येण धीमता ॥१-३॥
paśyaitāṃ pāṇḍuputrāṇām ācārya mahatīṃ camūm
vyūḍhāṃ drupadaputreṇa tava śiṣyeṇa dhīmatā 1.3

Behold, O preceptor, this vast army of the son of Pandu, arrayed by Drupada's son (Dhrishtadyumna), thy intelligent disciple.

अत्र शूरा महेष्वासा भीमार्जुनसमा युधि ।
युयुधानो विराटश्च द्रुपदश्च महारथः ॥१-४॥
atra śūrā maheṣvāsā bhīmārjunasamā yudhi
yuyudhāno virāṭaśca drupadaś ca mahārathaḥ 1.4

There (in that army) are many brave and mighty bowmen, who in battle are equal to Bhima and Arjuna. (They are) Yuyudhana, and Virata, and that mighty car-warrior Drupada,

धृष्टकेतुश्चेकितानः काशिराजश्च वीर्यवान् ।
पुरुजित्कुन्तिभोजश्च शैब्यश्च नरपुङ्गवः ॥१-५॥
dhṛṣṭaketuś cekitānaḥ kāśirājaś ca vīryavān
purujit kuntibhojaś ca śaibyaś ca narapuṅgavaḥ 1.5

and Dhrishtaketu, and Chekitana, and the ruler of Kasi endued with great energy; and Purujit, and Kuntibhoja, and Saivya that bull among men;

युधामन्युश्च विक्रान्त उत्तमौजाश्च वीर्यवान् ।
सौभद्रो द्रौपदेयाश्च सर्व एव महारथाः ॥१-६॥
yudhāmanyuś ca vikrānta uttamaujāś ca vīryavān
saubhadro draupadeyāś ca sarva eva mahārathāḥ 1.6

and Yudhamanyu of great prowess, and Uttamaujas of great energy; and Subhadra's son, and the sons of Draupadi, all of whom are mighty car-warriors.

Kaurav's Forces

अस्माकं तु विशिष्टा ये तान्निबोध द्विजोत्तम ।
नायका मम सैन्यस्य संज्ञार्थं तान्ब्रवीमि ते ॥१-७॥
asmākaṃ tu viśiṣṭā ye tān nibodha dvijottama
nāyakā mama sainyasya saṃjñārthaṃ tān bravīmi te 1.7

Hear, however, O best of regenerate ones, who are the distinguished ones among us, the leader of army. I will name them to thee for (thy) information.

भवान्भीष्मश्च कर्णश्च कृपश्च समितिंजयः ।
अश्वत्थामा विकर्णश्च सौमदत्तिस्तथैव च ॥१-८॥
bhavān bhīṣmaś ca karṇaś ca kṛpaś ca samitiñjayaḥ
aśvatthāmā vikarṇaś ca saumadattis tathaiva ca 1.8

(They are) thyself, and Bhishma, and Karna, and Kripa who is ever victorious; and Aswatthaman and Vikarna, and Saumadatta, and Jayadratha.

अन्ये च बहवः शूरा मदर्थे त्यक्तजीविताः ।
नानाशस्त्रप्रहरणाः सर्वे युद्धविशारदाः ॥१-९॥
anye ca bahavaḥ śūrā madarthe tyaktajīvitāḥ
nānāśastrapraharaṇāḥ sarve yuddhaviśāradāḥ 1.9

Besides these, are many heroic warriors, prepared to lay down their lives for my sake, armed with diverse kinds of weapons, and all accomplished in battle.

अपर्याप्तं तदस्माकं बलं भीष्माभिरक्षितम् ।
पर्याप्तं त्विदमेतेषां बलं भीमाभिरक्षितम् ॥१-१०॥
aparyāptaṃ tad asmākaṃ balaṃ bhīṣmābhirakṣitam
paryāptaṃ tvidam eteṣāṃ balaṃ bhīmābhirakṣitam 1.10

Our army, therefore, protected by Bhishma, is insufficient. This force, however, of these (the Pandavas), protected by Bhima, is sufficient.

अयनेषु च सर्वेषु यथाभागमवस्थिताः ।
भीष्ममेवाभिरक्षन्तु भवन्तः सर्व एव हि ॥१-११॥
ayaneṣu ca sarveṣu yathābhāgam avasthitāḥ
bhīṣmam evābhirakṣantu bhavantaḥ sarva eva hi 1.11

Stationing yourselves then in the entrances of the divisions that have been assigned to you, all of you protect Bhishma alone.

Blowing of horns

तस्य संजनयन्हर्षं कुरुवृद्धः पितामहः ।
सिंहनादं विनद्योच्चैः शङ्खं दध्मौ प्रतापवान् ॥१-१२॥
tasya sañjanayan harṣaṃ kuruvṛddhaḥ pitāmahaḥ
siṃhanādaṃ vinadyocchaiḥ śaṅkhaṃ dadhmau pratāpavān 1.12

--(Just at this time) the valiant and venerable grandsire of the Kurus, affording great joy to him (Duryodhana) by loudly uttering a leonine roar, blew (his) conch.

ततः शङ्खाश्च भेर्यश्च पणवानकगोमुखाः ।
सहसैवाभ्यहन्यन्त स शब्दस्तुमुलोऽभवत् ॥१-१३॥
tataḥ śaṅkhāś ca bheryaś ca paṇavānakagomukhāḥ
sahasaivābhyahanyanta sa śabdas tumulobhavat 1.13

Then conches and drums and cymbals and horns were sounded at once and the noise (made) became a loud uproar.

ततः श्वेतैर्हयैर्युक्ते महति स्यन्दने स्थितौ ।
माधवः पाण्डवश्चैव दिव्यौ शङ्खौ प्रदध्मतुः ॥१-१४॥
tataḥ śvetair hayair yukte mahati syandane sthitau
mādhavaḥ pāṇḍavaś caiva divyau śaṅkhau pradaghmatuḥ 1.14

Then Madhava and Pandu's son (Arjuna), both stationed on a great car unto which were yoked white steeds, blew their celestial conches.

पाञ्चजन्यं हृषीकेशो देवदत्तं धनञ्जयः ।
पौण्ड्रं दध्मौ महाशङ्खं भीमकर्मा वृकोदरः ॥१-१५॥
pāñcajanyaṃ hṛṣīkeśo devadattaṃ dhanañjayaḥ
pauṇḍraṃ dadhmau mahāśaṅkhaṃ bhīmakarmā vṛkodaraḥ 1.15

And Hrishikesha blew (the conch called) Panchajanya and Dhananjaya (that called) Devadatta; and Vrikodara of terrible deeds blew the huge conch (called) Paundra.

अनन्तविजयं राजा कुन्तीपुत्रो युधिष्ठिरः ।
नकुलः सहदेवश्च सुघोषमणिपुष्पकौ ॥१-१६॥
anañtavijayaṃ rājā kuntīputro yudhiṣṭhiraḥ
nakulaḥ sahadevaś ca sughoṣamaṇipuṣpakau 1.16

And Kunti's son king Yudhishthira blew (the conch called) Anantavijaya; while Nakula and Sahadeva, (those conches called respectively) Sughosa and Manipushpaka.

काश्यश्च परमेष्वासः शिखण्डी च महारथः ।
धृष्टद्युम्नो विराटश्च सात्यकिश्चापराजितः ॥१-१७॥
kāśyaś ca parameṣvāsaḥ śikhaṇḍī ca mahārathaḥ
dhṛṣṭadyumno virāṭaś ca sātyakiś cāparājitaḥ 1.17

And that splendid bowman, the ruler of Kasi and that mighty car-warrior, Sikhandin, Dhrishtadyumna, Virata, and that unvanquished Satyaki,

द्रुपदो द्रौपदेयाश्च सर्वशः पृथिवीपते ।
सौभद्रश्च महाबाहुः शङ्खान्दध्मुः पृथक्पृथक् ॥१-१८॥
drupado draupadeyāś ca sarvaśaḥ pṛthivīpate
saubhadraś ca mahābāhuḥ śaṅkhān dadhmuḥ pṛthakpṛthak 1.18

and Drupada, and the sons of Draupadi, and the mighty-armed son of Subhadra--all these, O lord of earth, severally blew their conches.

स घोषो धार्तराष्ट्राणां हृदयानि व्यदारयत् ।
नभश्च पृथिवीं चैव तुमुलो व्यनुनादयन् ॥१-१९॥
sa ghoṣo dhārtarāṣṭrāṇāṃ hṛdayāni vyadārayat
nabhaś ca pṛthivīṃ caiva tumulobhyanunādayan 1.19

And that blare, loudly reverberating through the welkin, and the earth, rent the hearts of the Dhartarashtras.

Introducing Arjun

अथ व्यवस्थितान्दृष्ट्वा धार्तराष्ट्रान्कपिध्वजः ।
प्रवृत्ते शस्त्रसंपाते धनुरुद्यम्य पाण्डवः ॥१-२०॥
atha vyavasthitān dṛṣṭvā dhārtarāṣṭrān.h kapidhvajaḥ
pravṛtte śastrasaṃpāte dhanur udyamya pāṇḍavaḥ 1.20

Then beholding the Dhartarashtra troops drawn up, the ape-bannered son of Pandu, rising his bow, when, the throwing of missiles had just commenced,

Section 3
अर्जुन उवाच

Arjuna said,

हृषीकेशं तदा वाक्यमिदमाह महीपते ।
सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये रथं स्थापय मेऽच्युत ॥१-२१॥
hṛṣīkeśaṃ tadā vākyam idam āha mahīpate
senayor ubhayor madhye rathaṃ sthāpaya mecyuta 1.21

said these words, O lord of earth, to Hrishikesha.O thou that knoweth no deterioration, place my car (once) between the two armies,

यावदेतान्निरिक्षेऽहं योद्धुकामानवस्थितान् ।
कैर्मया सह योद्धव्यमस्मिन् रणसमुद्यमे ॥१-२२॥
yāvad etān nirikṣehaṃ yoddhukāmān avasthitān
kair mayā saha yoddhavyam asmin raṇasamudyame 1.22

so that I may observe these that stand here desirous of battle, and with whom I shall have to contend in the labours of this struggle. I

योत्स्यमानानवेक्षेऽहं य एतेऽत्र समागताः ।
धार्तराष्ट्रस्य दुर्बुद्धेर्युद्धे प्रियचिकीर्षवः ॥१-२३॥
yotsyamānān avekṣehaṃ ya etetra samāgatāḥ
dhārtarāṣṭrasya durbuddher yuddhe priyacikīrṣavaḥ 1.23

will observe those who are assembled here and who are prepared to fight for doing what is agreeable in battle to the evil-minded son of Dhritarashtra

Section 4
संजय उवाच

Sanjaya continued,---

एवमुक्तो हृषीकेशो गुडाकेशेन भारत ।
सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये स्थापयित्वा रथोत्तमम् ॥१-२४॥
evam ukto hṛṣīkeśo guḍākeśena bhārata
senayor ubhayor madhye sthāpayitvā rathottamam 1.24

'Thus addressed by Gudakesa, O Bharata, Hrishikesa, placing that excellent car between the two armies,

भीष्मद्रोणप्रमुखतः सर्वेषां च महीक्षिताम् ।
उवाच पार्थ पश्यैतान्समवेतान्कुरूनिति ॥१-२५॥
bhīṣmadroṇapramukhataḥ sarveṣāṃ ca mahīkṣitām
uvāca pārtha paśyaitān samavetān kurūn iti 1.25

in view of Bhishma and Drona and all the kings of the earth, said,--'Behold, O Partha these assembled Kurus,--

तत्रापश्यत्स्थितान्पार्थः पितॄनथ पितामहान् ।
आचार्यान्मातुलान्भ्रातॄन्पुत्रान्पौत्रान्सखींस्तथा ॥१-२६॥
tatrāpaśyat sthitān pārthaḥ pitṛn atha pitāmahān ācāryān mātulān bhrātṛn putrān pautrān sakhīṃstathā 1.26

And there the son of Pritha beheld, standing (his) sires and grandsons, and friends, and father-in-law and well-wishers, in both the armies.

श्वशुरान्सुहृदश्चैव सेनयोरुभयोरपि ।
तान्समीक्ष्य स कौन्तेयः सर्वान्बन्धूनवस्थितान् ॥१-२७॥
śvaśurān suhṛdaś caiva senayor ubhayor api
tān samīkṣya sa kaunteyaḥ sarvān bandhūn avasthitān 1.27

Beholding all those kinsmen standing (there), the son of Kunti, possessed by excessive pity, despondingly said (these words).

Section 5
अर्जुन उवाच

Arjuna said,-

कृपया परयाविष्टो विषीदन्निदमब्रवीत् ।
दृष्ट्वेमं स्वजनं कृष्ण युयुत्सुं समुपस्थितम् ॥१-२८॥
kṛpayā parayāviṣṭo viṣīdann idamabravīt
dṛṣṭvemaṃ svajanaṃ kṛṣṇa yuyutsuṃ samupasthitam 1.28

-'Beholding these kinsmen, O Krishna, assembled together and eager for the fight, my limbs, become languid, and my mouth becomes dry.

सीदन्ति मम गात्राणि मुखं च परिशुष्यति ।
वेपथुश्च शरीरे मे रोमहर्षश्च जायते ॥१-२९॥
sīdanti mama gātrāṇi mukhañ ca pariśuṣyati
vepathuś ca śarīre me romaharṣaś ca jāyate 1.29

My body trembles, and my hair stands on end.

गाण्डीवं स्रंसते हस्तात्त्वक्चैव परिदह्यते ।
न च शक्नोम्यवस्थातुं भ्रमतीव च मे मनः ॥१-३०॥
gāṇḍīvaṃ straṃsate hastāt tvak caiva paridahyate na ca śaknomy avasthātuṃ bhramatīva ca me manaḥ 1.30

Gandiva slips from my hand, and my skin burns. I am unable to stand (any longer); my mind seems to wander.

निमित्तानि च पश्यामि विपरीतानि केशव ॥
न च श्रेयोऽनुपश्यामि हत्वा स्वजनमाहवे ॥१-३१॥
nimittāni ca paśyāmi viparītāni keśava na ca śreyonupaśyāmi hatvā svajanam āhave 1.31

I behold adverse omens, too, O Kesava.

न काङ्क्षे विजयं कृष्ण न च राज्यं सुखानि च ॥
किं नो राज्येन गोविन्द किं भोगैर्जीवितेन वा ॥१-३२॥
na kāṅkṣe vijayaṃ kṛṣṇa na ca rājyaṃ sukhāni ca kiṃ no rājyena govinda kiṃ bhogair jīvitena vā 1.32

I do not desire victory, O Krishna, not sovereignty, nor pleasures. Of what use would sovereignty be to us, O Govinda, or enjoyments, or even life,

येषामर्थे काङ्क्षितं नो राज्यं भोगाः सुखानि च ॥
त इमेऽवस्थिता युद्धे प्राणांस्त्यक्त्वा धनानि च ॥१-३३॥
yeṣām arthe kāṅkṣitaṃ no rājyaṃ bhogāḥ sukhāni ca ta imevasthitā yuddhe prāṇāṃs tyaktvā dhanāni ca 1.33

since they, for whose sake sovereignty, enjoyments, and pleasures are desired by us, are here arrayed for battle ready to give up life and wealth,

आचार्याः पितरः पुत्रास्तथैव च पितामहाः ॥
मातुलाः श्वशुराः पौत्राः श्यालाः संबन्धिनस्तथा ॥१-३४॥
ācāryāḥ pitaraḥ putrās tathaiva ca pitāmahāḥ mātulāḥ śvaśurāḥ pautrāḥ śyālāḥ sambandhinas tathā 1.34

viz., preceptors, sires, sons and grandsires, maternal uncles, father-in-laws, grandsons, brother-in-laws, and kinsmen.

एतान्न हन्तुमिच्छामि घ्नतोऽपि मधुसूदन ॥
अपि त्रैलोक्यराज्यस्य हेतोः किं नु महीकृते ॥१-३५॥
etān na hantum icchhāmi ghnatopi madhusūdana api trailokyarājyasya hetoḥ kiṃ nu mahīkṛte 1.35

I wish not to slay these though they slay me, O slayer of Madhu, even for the sake of the sovereignty of the three worlds, what then for the sake of (this) earth?

निहत्य धार्तराष्ट्रान्नः का प्रीतिः स्याज्जनार्दन ॥
पापमेवाश्रयेदस्मान्हत्वैतानाततायिनः ॥१-३६॥
nihatya dhārtarāṣṭrān naḥ kā prītiḥ syājanārdana pāpam evāśrayed asmān hatvaitān ātatāyinaḥ 1.36

3 What gratification can be ours, O Janardana, by slaying the Dhartarashtras? Even if they be regarded as foes,

तस्मान्नार्हा वयं हन्तुं धार्तराष्ट्रान्स्वबान्धवान् ॥
स्वजनं हि कथं हत्वा सुखिनः स्याम माधव ॥१-३७॥
tasmān nārhā vayaṃ hantuṃ dhārtarāṣṭrān svabāndhavān svajanaṃ hi kathaṃ hatvā sukhinaḥ syāma mādhava 1.37

4 sin will overtake us if we slay them. Therefore, it behoveth us not to slay the sons of Dhritarashtra who are our own kinsmen. 5 How, O Madhava can we be happy by killing our own kinsmen?

यद्यप्येते न पश्यन्ति लोभोपहतचेतसः ॥
कुलक्षयकृतं दोषं मित्रद्रोहे च पातकम् ॥१-३८॥
yadyapyete na paśyanti lobhopahatacetasaḥ kulakṣayakṛtaṃ doṣaṃ mitradrohe ca pātakam 1.38

Even if these, with judgments perverted by avarice, do not see the evil that ariseth from the extermination of a race, and the sin of internecine quarrels,

कथं न ज्ञेयमस्माभिः पापादस्मान्निवर्तितुम् ॥
कुलक्षयकृतं दोषं प्रपश्यद्भिर्जनार्दन ॥१-३९॥
kathaṃ na jñeyam asmābhiḥ pāpād asmān nivartitum kulakṣayakṛtaṃ doṣaṃ prapaśyadbhir janārdana 1.39

why should not we, O Janarddana, who see the evils of the extermination of a race, learn to abstain from that sin?

कुलक्षये प्रणश्यन्ति कुलधर्माः सनातनाः ॥
धर्मे नष्टे कुलं कृत्स्नमधर्मोऽभिभवत्युत ॥१-४०॥
kulakṣaye praṇaśyanti kuladharmāḥ sanātanāḥ dharme naṣṭe kulaṃ kṛtsnam adharmobhibhavaty uta 1.40

A race being destroyed, the eternal customs of that race are lost; and upon those customs being lost, sin overpowers the whole race.

अधर्माभिभवात्कृष्ण प्रदुष्यन्ति कुलस्त्रियः ॥
स्त्रीषु दुष्टासु वार्ष्णेय जायते वर्णसंकरः ॥१-४१॥
adharmābhibhavāt kṛṣṇa praduṣyanti kulastriyaḥ strīṣu duṣṭāsu vārṣṇeya jāyate varṇasaṅkaraḥ 1.41

From the predominance of sin, O Krishna, the women of that race become corrupt. And the women becoming corrupt, an intermingling of castes happeneth, O descendant of Vrishni.

संकरो नरकायैव कुलघ्नानां कुलस्य च ॥
पतन्ति पितरो ह्येषां लुप्तपिण्डोदकक्रियाः ॥१-४२॥
saṅkaro narakāyaiva kulaghnānāṃ kulasya ca patanti pitaro hy eṣāṃ luptapiṇḍodakakriyāḥ 1.42

This intermingling of castes leadeth to hell both the destroyer of the race and the race itself. The ancestors of those fall (from heaven), their rites of pinda and water ceasing.

दोषैरेतैः कुलघ्नानां वर्णसंकरकारकैः ॥
उत्साद्यन्ते जातिधर्माः कुलधर्माश्च शाश्वताः ॥१-४३॥
doṣair etaiḥ kulaghnānāṃ varṇasaṅkarakārakaiḥ utsādyante jātidharmāḥ kuladharmāś ca śāśvatāḥ 1.43

By these sins of destroyers of races, causing intermixture of castes, the rules of caste and the eternal rites of families become extinct.

उत्सन्नकुलधर्माणां मनुष्याणां जनार्दन ॥
नरकेऽनियतं वासो भवतीत्यनुशुश्रुम ॥१-४४॥
utsannakuladharmāṇāṃ manuṣyāṇāṃ janārdana narake niyataṃ vāso bhavatīty anuśuśruma 1.44

We have heard, O Janarddana, that men whose family rites become extinct, ever dwell in hell.

अहो बत महत्पापं कर्तुं व्यवसिता वयम् ॥
यद्राज्यसुखलोभेन हन्तुं स्वजनमुद्यताः ॥१-४५॥
aho bata mahat pāpaṃ kartuṃ vyavasitā vayam yad rājyasukhalobhena hantuṃ svajanam udyatāḥ 1.45

Alas, we have resolved to perpetrate a great sin, for we are ready to slay our own kinsmen from lust of the sweets of sovereignty.

यदि मामप्रतीकारमशस्त्रं शस्त्रपाणयः ॥
धार्तराष्ट्रा रणे हन्युस्तन्मे क्षेमतरं भवेत् ॥१-४६॥
yadi mām apratīkāram aśastraṃ śastrapāṇayaḥ dhārtarāṣṭrā raṇe hanyus tan me kṣemataraṃ bhavet 1.46

Better would it be for me if the sons of Dhritarashtra, weapon in hand, should in battle slay me (myself) unavenging unarmed.--'

Section 6

Arjun puts his weapon down

संजय उवाच
sañjaya uvāca

Sanjaya continued,--

एवमुक्त्वार्जुनः संख्ये रथोपस्थ उपाविशत् ।
विसृज्य सशरं चापं शोकसंविग्नमानसः ॥१-४७॥
evam uktvārjunaḥ saṅkhye rathopastha upāviśat visṛjya saśaraṃ cāpaṃ śokasaṃvignamānasaḥ 1.47

Having spoken thus on the field of battle, Arjuna, his mind troubled with grief, casting aside his bow and arrows, sat down on his car.

Chapter 2 साङ्ख्ययोगः

Introducing Krishna

संजय उवाच
sañjaya uvāca

Sanjaya continued,--

तं तथा कृपयाविष्टमश्रुपूर्णाकुलेक्षणम् ।
विषीदन्तमिदं वाक्यमुवाच मधुसूदनः ॥२- १॥
taṃ tathā kṛpayāviṣṭam aśrupūrṇākulekṣaṇam viṣīdantam idaṃ vākyam uvāca madhusūdanaḥ 2.1

Unto him thus possessed with pity, his eyes filled and oppressed with tears, and desponding, the slayer of Madhu said these words.

Section 7
श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,--

कुतस्त्वा कश्मलमिदं विषमे समुपस्थितम् ।
अनार्यजुष्टमस्वर्ग्यमकीर्तिकरमर्जुन ॥२- २॥
kutas tvā kaśmalam idaṃ viṣame samupasthitam anāryajuṣṭam asvargyam akīrtikaram arjuna 2.2

Whence, O Arjuna, hath come upon thee, at such a crisis, this despondency that is unbecoming a person of noble birth, that shuts one out from heaven, and that is productive of infamy?

क्लैब्यं मा स्म गमः पार्थ नैतत्त्वय्युपपद्यते ।
क्षुद्रं हृदयदौर्बल्यं त्यक्त्वोत्तिष्ठ परन्तप ॥२- ३॥
klaibyaṃ mā sma gamaḥ pārtha naitat tvayy upapadyate kṣudraṃ hṛdayadaurbalyaṃ tyaktvottiṣṭha paraṃtapa 2.3

Let no effeminacy be thine, O son of Kunti. This suits thee not. Shaking off this vile weakness of hearts, arise, O chastiser of foes.--

Section 8
अर्जुन उवाच
arjuna uvāca

Arjuna said,--

कथं भीष्ममहं संख्ये द्रोणं च मधुसूदन ।
इषुभिः प्रति योत्स्यामि पूजार्हावरिसूदन ॥२- ४॥
kathaṃ bhīṣmam ahaṃ sāṅkhye droṇaṃ ca madhusūdana iṣubhiḥ pratiyotsyāmi pūjārhāv arisūdana 2.4

How, O slayer of Madhu, can I with arrows contend in battle against Bhishma and Drona, deserving as they are. O slayer of foes, of worship?

गुरूनहत्वा हि महानुभावान् श्रेयो भोक्तुं भैक्ष्यमपीह लोके ।
हत्वार्थकामांस्तु गुरूनिहैव भुञ्जीय भोगान् रुधिरप्रदिग्धान् ॥२- ५॥
gurūn ahatvā hi mahānubhāvān śreyo bhoktuṃ bhaikṣyam apīha loke hatvārthakāmāṃstu gurunihaiva bhuñjjīya bhogān rudhirapradigdhān 2.5

Without slaying (one's) preceptors of great glory, it is well (for one), to live on even alms in this world. By slaying preceptors, even if they are avaricious of wealth, I should only enjoy pleasures that are bloodstained!

न चैतद्विद्मः कतरन्नो गरीयो यद्वा जयेम यदि वा नो जयेयुः ।
यानेव हत्वा न जिजीविषाम- स्तेऽवस्थिताः प्रमुखे धार्तराष्ट्राः ॥२- ६॥
na caitad vidmaḥ kataran no garīyo yad vā jayema yadi vā no jayeyuḥ yān eva hatvā na jijīviṣāmas tevasthitāḥ pramukhe dhārtarāṣṭrāḥ 2.6

We know not which of the two is of greater moment to us, viz., whether we should conquer them or they should conquer us. By slaying whom we would not like to live,--even they, the sons of Dhritarashtra, stand before (us).

कार्पण्यदोषोपहतस्वभावः पृच्छामि त्वां धर्मसम्मूढचेताः ।
यच्छ्रेयः स्यान्निश्चितं ब्रूहि तन्मे शिष्यस्तेऽहं शाधि मां त्वां प्रपन्नम् ॥२- ७॥
kārpaṇyadoṣopahatasvabhāvaḥ pṛcchāmi tvāṃ dharmasaṃmūḍhacetāḥ yac chreyaḥ syān niścitaṃ brūhi tan me śiṣyastehaṃ śādhi māṃ tvāṃ prapannam 2.7

My nature affected by the taint of compassion, my mind unsettled about (my) duty, I ask thee. Tell me what is assuredly good (for me). I am thy disciple. O, instruct me, I seek thy aid.

न हि प्रपश्यामि ममापनुद्याद् यच्छोकमुच्छोषणमिन्द्रियाणाम् ।
अवाप्य भूमावसपत्नमृद्धं राज्यं सुराणामपि चाधिपत्यम् ॥२- ८॥
na hi prapaśyāmi mamāpanudyād yac chokam ucchoṣaṇam indriyāṇām avāpya bhūmāv asapatnam ṛddhaṃ rājyaṃ surāṇām api cādhipatyam 2.8

I do not see (that) which would dispel that grief of mine blasting my very senses, even if I obtain a prosperous kingdom on earth without a foe or the very sovereignty of the gods.

Section 9
संजय उवाच
sañjaya uvāca

Sanjaya said,--

एवमुक्त्वा हृषीकेशं गुडाकेशः परन्तप ।
न योत्स्य इति गोविन्दमुक्त्वा तूष्णीं बभूव ह ॥२- ९॥
evam uktvā hṛṣīkeśaṃ guḍākeśaḥ paraṃtapaḥ na yotsya iti govindam uktvā tūṣṇīṃ babhūva ha 2.9

Having said this unto Hrishikesa, that chastiser of foes-Gudakesa--(once more) addressed Govinda, saying,--'I will not fight,'--and then remained silent.

तमुवाच हृषीकेशः प्रहसन्निव भारत ।
सेनयोरुभयोर्मध्ये विषीदन्तमिदं वचः ॥२- १०॥
tam uvāca hṛṣīkeśaḥ prahasann iva bhārata senayor ubhayor madhye viṣīdantam idaṃ vacaḥ 2.10

Unto him overcome by despondency, Hrishikesa, in the midst of the two armies, said.

Section 10

Wise men do not grieve

श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,--'

अशोच्यानन्वशोचस्त्वं प्रज्ञावादांश्च भाषसे ।
गतासूनगतासूंश्च नानुशोचन्ति पण्डिताः ॥२- ११॥
aśocyān anvaśocas tvaṃ prajñāvādāṃś ca bhāṣase gatāsūn agatāsūṃś ca nānuśocanti paṇḍitāḥ 2.11

Thou mournest those that deserve not to be mourned. Thou speakest also the words of the (so-called) wise. Those, however, that are (really) wise, grieve neither for the dead nor for the living.

न त्वेवाहं जातु नासं न त्वं नेमे जनाधिपाः ।
न चैव न भविष्यामः सर्वे वयमतः परम् ॥२- १२॥
natv evāhaṃ jātu nāsaṃ na tvaṃ neme janādhipāḥ na caiva na bhaviṣyāmaḥ sarve vayam ataḥ param 2.12

It is not that, I or you or those rulers of men never were, or that all of us shall not hereafter be.

देहिनोऽस्मिन्यथा देहे कौमारं यौवनं जरा ।
तथा देहान्तरप्राप्तिर्धीरस्तत्र न मुह्यति ॥२- १३॥
dehinosmin yathā dehe kaumāraṃ yauvanaṃ jarā tathā dehāntaraprāptir dhīras tatra na muhyati 2.13

Of an Embodied being, as childhood, youth, and, decrepitude are in this body, so (also) is the acquisition of another body. The man, who is wise, is never deluded in this.

Treat pain and pleasure equally

मात्रास्पर्शास्तु कौन्तेय शीतोष्णसुखदुःखदाः ।
आगमापायिनोऽनित्यास्तांस्तितिक्षस्व भारत ॥२- १४॥
mātrāsparśās tu kaunteya śītoṣṇasukhaduḥkhadāḥ āgamāpāyinonityās tāṃs titikṣasva bhārata 2.14

The contacts of the senses with their (respective) objects producing (sensations of) heat and cold, pleasure and pain, are not permanent, having (as they do) a beginning and an end. Do thou. O Bharata, endure them.

यं हि न व्यथयन्त्येते पुरुषं पुरुषर्षभ ।
समदुःखसुखं धीरं सोऽमृतत्वाय कल्पते ॥२- १५॥
yaṃ hi na vyathayanty ete puruṣaṃ puruṣarṣabha samaduḥkhasukhaṃ dhīraṃ somṛtatvāya kalpate 2.15

For the man whom these afflict not, O bull among men, who is the same in pain and pleasure and who is firm in mind, is fit for emancipation.

Do not mourn for soul

नासतो विद्यते भावो नाभावो विद्यते सतः ।
उभयोरपि दृष्टोऽन्तस्त्वनयोस्तत्त्वदर्शिभिः ॥२- १६॥
nāsato vidyate bhāvo nābhāvo vidyate sataḥ ubhayor api dṛṣṭo.antas tv anayos tattvadarśibhiḥ 2.16

There is no (objective) existence of anything that is distinct from the soul; nor non-existence of anything possessing the virtues of the soul.

अविनाशि तु तद्विद्धि येन सर्वमिदं ततम् ।
विनाशमव्ययस्यास्य न कश्चित्कर्तुमर्हति ॥२- १७॥
avināśi tu tad viddhi yena sarvam idaṃ tatam vināśam avyayasyāsya na kaścit kartum arhati 2.17

This conclusion in respect of both these hath been arrived at by those that know the truths (of things). 2 Know that [the soul] to be immortal by which all this [universe] is pervaded. No one can compass the destruction of that which is imperishable.

अन्तवन्त इमे देहा नित्यस्योक्ताः शरीरिणः ।
अनाशिनोऽप्रमेयस्य तस्माद्युध्यस्व भारत ॥२- १८॥
antavanta ime dehā nityasyoktāḥ śarīriṇaḥ anāśinoprameyasya tasmād yudhyasva bhārata 2.18

It hath been said that those bodies of the Embodied (soul) which is eternal, indestructible and infinite, have an end. Do thou, therefore, fight, O Bharata.

य एनं वेत्ति हन्तारं यश्चैनं मन्यते हतम् ।
उभौ तौ न विजानीतो नायं हन्ति न हन्यते ॥२- १९॥
ya enaṃ vetti hantāraṃ yaś cainaṃ manyate hatam ubhau tau na vijānīto nāyaṃ hanti na hanyate 2.19

He who thinks it (the soul) to be the slayer and he who thinks it to be the slain, both of them know nothing; for it neither slays nor is slain.

न जायते म्रियते वा कदाचि- न्नायं भूत्वा भविता वा न भूयः ।
अजो नित्यः शाश्वतोऽयं पुराणो न हन्यते हन्यमाने शरीरे ॥२- २०॥
na jāyate mriyate vā kadācin nāyaṃ bhūtvā bhavitā vā na bhūyaḥ ajo nityaḥ śāśvatoyaṃ purāṇo na hanyate hanyamāne śarīre 2.20

It is never born, nor doth it ever die; nor, having existed, will it exist no more. Unborn, unchangeable, eternal, and ancient, it is not slain upon the body being perished.

वेदाविनाशिनं नित्यं य एनमजमव्ययम् ।
कथं स पुरुषः पार्थ कं घातयति हन्ति कम् ॥२- २१॥
vedāvināśinaṃ nityaṃ ya enam ajam avyayam kathaṃ sa puruṣaḥ pārtha kaṃ ghātayati hanti kam 2.21

That man who knoweth it to be indestructible, unchangeable, without decay, how and whom can he slay or cause to be slain?

वासांसि जीर्णानि यथा विहाय नवानि गृह्णाति नरोऽपराणि ।
तथा शरीराणि विहाय जीर्णान्यन्यानि संयाति नवानि देही ॥२- २२॥
vāsāṃsi jīrṇāni yathā vihāya navāni gṛhṇāti naroparāṇi tathā śarīrāṇi vihāya jīrṇāni anyāni saṃyāti navāni dehī 2.22

As a man, casting off robes that are worn out, putteth on others that are new, so the Embodied (soul), casting off bodies that are worn out, entereth other bodies that are new.

नैनं छिन्दन्ति शस्त्राणि नैनं दहति पावकः ।
न चैनं क्लेदयन्त्यापो न शोषयति मारुतः ॥२- २३॥
nainaṃ chindanti śastrāṇi nainaṃ dahati pāvakaḥ na cainaṃ kledayanty āpo na śoṣayati mārutaḥ 2.23

Weapons cleave it not, fire consumeth it not; the waters do not drench it, nor doth the wind waste it. It is incapable of being cut, burnt, drenched, or dried up.

अच्छेद्योऽयमदाह्योऽयमक्लेद्योऽशोष्य एव च ।
नित्यः सर्वगतः स्थाणुरचलोऽयं सनातनः ॥२- २४॥
acchedyoyam adāhyoyam akledyośoṣya eva ca nityaḥ sarvagataḥ sthāṇur acaloyaṃ sanātanaḥ 2.24

It is unchangeable, all-pervading, stable, firm, and eternal. It is said to be imperceivable, inconceivable and unchangeable.

अव्यक्तोऽयमचिन्त्योऽयमविकार्योऽयमुच्यते ।
तस्मादेवं विदित्वैनं नानुशोचितुमर्हसि ॥२- २५॥
avyaktoyam acintyoyam avikaryoyam ucyate tasmād evaṃ viditvainaṃ nānuśocitum arhasi 2.25

Therefore, knowing it to be such, it behoveth thee not to mourn (for it).

Do not grieve Death

अथ चैनं नित्यजातं नित्यं वा मन्यसे मृतम् ।
तथापि त्वं महाबाहो नैवं शोचितुमर्हसि ॥२- २६॥
atha cainaṃ nityajātaṃ nityaṃ vā manyase mṛtam tathāpi tvaṃ mahābāho naivaṃ śocitum arhasi 2.26

Then again even if thou regardest it as constantly born and constantly dead, it behoveth thee not yet, O mighty-armed one, to mourn (for it) thus.

जातस्य हि ध्रुवो मृत्युर्ध्रुवं जन्म मृतस्य च ।
तस्मादपरिहार्येऽर्थे न त्वं शोचितुमर्हसि ॥२- २७॥
jātasya hi dhruvo mṛtyur dhruvaṃ janma mṛtasya ca tasmād aparihāryerthe na tvaṃ śocitum arhasi 2.27

For, of one that is born, death is certain; and of one that is dead, birth is certain. Therefore. it behoveth thee not to mourn in a matter that is unavoidable.

अव्यक्तादीनि भूतानि व्यक्तमध्यानि भारत ।
अव्यक्तनिधनान्येव तत्र का परिदेवना ॥२- २८॥
avyaktādīni bhūtāni vyaktamadhyāni bhārata avyaktanidhanāny eva tatra kā paridevanā 2.28

All beings (before birth) were unmanifest. Only during an interval (between birth and death), O Bharata, are they manifest; and then again, when death comes, they become (once more) unmanifest. What grief then is there in this?

आश्चर्यवत्पश्यति कश्चिदेन- माश्चर्यवद्वदति तथैव चान्यः ।
आश्चर्यवच्चैनमन्यः शृणोति श्रुत्वाप्येनं वेद न चैव कश्चित् ॥२- २९॥
āścaryavat paśyati kaścid enam āścaryavad vadati tathaiva cānyaḥ āścaryavac cainam anyaḥ śṛṇoti śrutvāpy enaṃ veda na caiva kaścit 2.29

One looks upon it as a marvel; another speaks of it as a marvel. Yet even after having heard of it, no one apprehends it truly.

देही नित्यमवध्योऽयं देहे सर्वस्य भारत ।
तस्मात्सर्वाणि भूतानि न त्वं शोचितुमर्हसि ॥२- ३०॥
dehī nityam avadhyoyaṃ dehe sarvasya bhārata tasmāt sarvāṇi bhūtāni na tvaṃ śocitum arhasi 2.30

The Embodied (soul), O Bharata, is ever indestructible in everyone's body. Therefore, it behoveth thee not to grieve for all (those) creatures.

Do your Duty

स्वधर्ममपि चावेक्ष्य न विकम्पितुमर्हसि ।
धर्म्याद्धि युद्धाच्छ्रेयोऽन्यत्क्षत्रियस्य न विद्यते ॥२- ३१॥
svadharmam api cāvekṣya na vikampitum arhasi dharmyād dhi yuddhāc chreyonyat kṣatriyasya na vidyate 2.31

Casting thy eyes on the (prescribed) duties of thy order, it behoveth thee not to waver, for there is nothing else that is better for a Kshatriya than a battle fought fairly.

यदृच्छया चोपपन्नं स्वर्गद्वारमपावृतम् ।
सुखिनः क्षत्रियाः पार्थ लभन्ते युद्धमीदृशम् ॥२- ३२॥
yadṛcchayā copapannaṃ svargadvāram apāvṛtam sukhinaḥ kṣatriyāḥ pārtha labhante yuddham īdṛśam 2.32

Arrived of itself and (like unto) an open gate of heaven, happy are those Kshatriyas, O Partha, that obtain such a fight.

अथ चेत्त्वमिमं धर्म्यं संग्रामं न करिष्यसि ।
ततः स्वधर्मं कीर्तिं च हित्वा पापमवाप्स्यसि ॥२- ३३॥
atha cet tvam imaṃ dhārmyaṃ saṅgrāmaṃ na kariṣyasi tataḥ svadharmaṃ kīrtiṃ ca hitvā pāpam avāpsyasi 2.33

But if thou dost not fight such a just battle, thou shalt then incur sin by abandoning the duties of thy order and thy fame.

अकीर्तिं चापि भूतानि कथयिष्यन्ति तेऽव्ययाम् ।
सम्भावितस्य चाकीर्तिर्मरणादतिरिच्यते ॥२- ३४॥
akīrtiṃ cāpi bhūtāni kathayiṣyanti tevyayām saṃbhāvitasya cākīrtir maraṇād atiricyate 2.34

People will then proclaim thy eternal infamy, and to one that is held in respect, infamy is greater (as an evil) than death itself.

भयाद्रणादुपरतं मंस्यन्ते त्वां महारथाः ।
येषां च त्वं बहुमतो भूत्वा यास्यसि लाघवम् ॥२- ३५॥
bhayād raṇād uparataṃ maṃsyante tvāṃ mahārathāḥ yeṣāṃ ca tvaṃ bahumato bhūtvā yāsyasi lāghavam 2.35

All great car-warriors will regard thee as abstaining from battle from fear, and thou wilt be thought lightly by those that had (hitherto) esteemed thee highly.

अवाच्यवादांश्च बहून्वदिष्यन्ति तवाहिताः ।
निन्दन्तस्तव सामर्थ्यं ततो दुःखतरं नु किम् ॥२- ३६॥
avācyavādāṃś ca bahūn vadiṣyanti tavāhitāḥ nindantas tava sāmarthyaṃ tato duḥkhataraṃ nu kim 2.36

Thy enemies, decrying thy prowess, will say many words which should not be said. What can be more painful than that?

हतो वा प्राप्स्यसि स्वर्गं जित्वा वा भोक्ष्यसे महीम् ।
तस्मादुत्तिष्ठ कौन्तेय युद्धाय कृतनिश्चयः ॥२- ३७॥
hato vā prāpsyasi svargaṃ jitvā vā bhokṣyase mahīm tasmād uttiṣṭha kaunteya yuddhāya kṛtaniścayaḥ 2.37

Slain, thou wilt attain to heaven; or victorious, thou wilt enjoy the Earth. Therefore, arise, O son of Kunti, resolved for battle.

सुखदुःखे समे कृत्वा लाभालाभौ जयाजयौ ।
ततो युद्धाय युज्यस्व नैवं पापमवाप्स्यसि ॥२- ३८॥
sukhaduḥkhe same kṛtvā lābhālābhau jayājayau tato yuddhāya yujyasva naivaṃ pāpam avāpsyasi 2.38

Regarding pleasure and pain, gain and loss, victory and defeat, as equal, do battle for battle's sake and sin will not be thine.

Sankhya Yog

एषा तेऽभिहिता सांख्ये बुद्धिर्योगे त्विमां शृणु ।
बुद्ध्या युक्तो यया पार्थ कर्मबन्धं प्रहास्यसि ॥२- ३९॥
eṣā tebhihitā sāṅkhye buddhir yoge tv imāṃ śṛṇu buddhyā yukto yayā pārtha karmabandhaṃ prahāsyasi 2.39

This knowledge, that hath been communicated to thee is (taught) in the Sankhya (system). Listen now to that (inculcated) in Yoga (system). Possessed of that knowledge, thou, O Partha, wilt cast off the bonds of action.

नेहाभिक्रमनाशोऽस्ति प्रत्यवायो न विद्यते ।
स्वल्पमप्यस्य धर्मस्य त्रायते महतो भयात् ॥२- ४०॥
nehābhikramanāśosti pratyavāyo na vidyate svalpam apy asya dharmasya trāyate mahato bhayāt 2.40

In this (the Yoga system) there is no waste of even the first attempt. There are no impediments. Even a little of this (form of) piety delivers from great fear.

व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिरेकेह कुरुनन्दन ।
बहुशाखा ह्यनन्ताश्च बुद्धयोऽव्यवसायिनाम् ॥२- ४१॥
vyavasāyātmikā buddhir ekeha kurunandana bahuśākhā hy anantāś ca buddhayovyavasāyinām 2.41

Here in this path, O son of Kuru, there is only one state of mind, consisting in firm devotion (to one object, viz., securing emancipation). The minds of those, however, that are not firmly devoted (to this), are many-branched (un-settled) and attached to endless pursuits.

यामिमां पुष्पितां वाचं प्रवदन्त्यविपश्चितः ।
वेदवादरताः पार्थ नान्यदस्तीति वादिनः ॥२- ४२॥
yām imāṃ puṣpitāṃ vācaṃ pravadanty avipaścitaḥ vedavādaratāḥ pārtha nānyad astīti vādinaḥ 2.42

That flowery talk which, they that are ignorant, they that delight in the words of the Vedas, they, O Partha, that say that there is nothing else,

कामात्मानः स्वर्गपरा जन्मकर्मफलप्रदाम् ।
क्रियाविशेषबहुलां भोगैश्वर्यगतिं प्रति ॥२- ४३॥
kāmātmānaḥ svargaparā janmakarmaphalapradām kriyāviśeṣabahulāṃ bhogaiśvaryagatiṃ prati 2.43

they whose minds are attached to worldly pleasures, they that regard (a) heaven (of pleasures and enjoyments) as the highest object of acquisition,--utter and promises birth as the fruit of action and concerns itself with multifarious rites of specific characters for the attainment of pleasures and power,

भोगैश्वर्यप्रसक्तानां तयापहृतचेतसाम् ।
व्यवसायात्मिका बुद्धिः समाधौ न विधीयते ॥२- ४४॥
bhogaiśvaryaprasaktānāṃ tayāpahṛtacetasām vyavasāyātmikā buddhiḥ samādhau na vidhīyate 2.44

--delude their hearts and the minds of these men who are attached to pleasures and power cannot be directed to contemplation (of the divine being) regarding it as the sole means of emancipation.

त्रैगुण्यविषया वेदा निस्त्रैगुण्यो भवार्जुन ।
निर्द्वन्द्वो नित्यसत्त्वस्थो निर्योगक्षेम आत्मवान् ॥२- ४५॥
traiguṇyaviṣayā vedā nistraiguṇyo bhavārjuna nirdvandvo nityasatvastho niryogakṣema ātmavān 2.45

The Vedas are concerned with three qualities, (viz., religion, profit, and pleasure). Be thou, O Arjuna, free from them, unaffected by pairs of contraries (such as pleasure and pain, heat and cold, etc.), ever adhering to patience without anxiety for new acquisitions or protection of those already acquired, and self-possessed,

यावानर्थ उदपाने सर्वतः संप्लुतोदके ।
तावान्सर्वेषु वेदेषु ब्राह्मणस्य विजानतः ॥२- ४६॥
yāvān artha udapāne sarvataḥ saṃplutodake tāvān sarveṣu vedeṣu brāhmaṇasya vijānataḥ 2.46

whatever objects are served by a tank or well, may all be served by a vast sheet of water extending all around; so whatever objects may be served by all the Vedas, may all be had by a Brahmana having knowledge (of self or Brahma).

Work vs. Fruit of work

कर्मण्येवाधिकारस्ते मा फलेषु कदाचन ।
मा कर्मफलहेतुर्भूर्मा ते सङ्गोऽस्त्वकर्मणि ॥२- ४७॥
karmaṇy evādhikāras te mā phaleṣu kadācana mā karmaphalahetur bhūr mā te saṅgostv akarmaṇi 2.47

Thy concern is with work only, but not with the fruit (of work). Let not the fruit be thy motive for work; nor let thy inclination be for inaction.

योगस्थः कुरु कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा धनंजय ।
सिद्ध्यसिद्ध्योः समो भूत्वा समत्वं योग उच्यते ॥२- ४८॥
yogasthaḥ kuru karmāṇi saṅgaṃ tyaktvā dhanañjaya siddhyasiddhyoḥ samo bhūtvā samatvaṃ yoga ucyate 2.48

Staying in devotion, apply thyself to work, casting off attachment (to it), O Dhananjaya, and being the same in success or unsuccess.

दूरेण ह्यवरं कर्म बुद्धियोगाद्धनंजय ।
बुद्धौ शरणमन्विच्छ कृपणाः फलहेतवः ॥२- ४९॥
dūreṇa hy avaraṃ karma buddhiyogād dhanañjaya buddhau śaraṇam anviccha kṛpaṇāḥ phalahetavaḥ 2.49

This equanimity is called Yoga (devotion). Work (with desire of fruit) is far inferior to devotion, O Dhananjaya. Seek thou the protection of devotion. They that work for the sake of fruit are miserable.

बुद्धियुक्तो जहातीह उभे सुकृतदुष्कृते ।
तस्माद्योगाय युज्यस्व योगः कर्मसु कौशलम् ॥२- ५०॥
buddhiyukto jahātīha ubhe sukṛtaduṣkṛte tasmād yogāya yujyasva yogaḥ karmasu kauśalam 2.50

He also that hath devotion throws off, even in this world, both good actions and bad actions. Therefore, apply thyself to devotion. Devotion is only cleverness in action.

कर्मजं बुद्धियुक्ता हि फलं त्यक्त्वा मनीषिणः ।
जन्मबन्धविनिर्मुक्ताः पदं गच्छन्त्यनामयम् ॥२- ५१॥
karmajaṃ buddhiyuktā hi phalaṃ tyaktvā manīṣiṇaḥ janmabandhavinirmuktāḥ padaṃ gacchhanty anāmayam 2.51

The wise, possessed of devotion, cast off the fruit born of action, and freed from the obligation of (repeated) birth, attain to that region where there is no unhappiness.

Achieving Samadhi

यदा ते मोहकलिलं बुद्धिर्व्यतितरिष्यति ।
तदा गन्तासि निर्वेदं श्रोतव्यस्य श्रुतस्य च ॥२- ५२॥
yadā te mohakalilaṃ buddhir vyatitariṣyati tadā gantāsi nirvedaṃ śrotavyasya śrutasya ca 2.52

When thy mind shall have crossed the maze of delusion, then shalt thou attain to an indifference as regards the hearable and the heard.

श्रुतिविप्रतिपन्ना ते यदा स्थास्यति निश्चला ।
समाधावचला बुद्धिस्तदा योगमवाप्स्यसि ॥२- ५३॥
śrutivipratipannā te yadā sthāsyati niścalā samādhāv acalā buddhis tadā yogam avāpsyasi 2.53

When thy mind, distracted (now) by what thou hast heard (about the means of acquiring the diverse objects of life), will be firmly and immovably fixed on contemplation, then wilt thou attain to devotion.

Section 11
अर्जुन उवाच
arjuna uvāca
स्थितप्रज्ञस्य का भाषा समाधिस्थस्य केशव ।
स्थितधीः किं प्रभाषेत किमासीत व्रजेत किम् ॥२- ५४॥
sthitaprajñasya kā bhāṣā samādhisthasya keśava sthitadhīḥ kiṃ prabhāṣeta kim āsīta vrajeta kim 2.54

Arjuna said,--What, O Kesava, are the indications of one whose mind is fixed on contemplation? How should one of steady mind speak, how sit, how move?

Section 12
श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,

प्रजहाति यदा कामान्सर्वान्पार्थ मनोगतान् ।
आत्मन्येवात्मना तुष्टः स्थितप्रज्ञस्तदोच्यते ॥२- ५५॥
prajahāti yadā kāmān sarvān pārtha manogatān ātmany evātmanā tuṣṭaḥ sthitaprajñas tadocyate 2.55

When one casts off all the desires of his heart and is pleased within (his) self with self, then is one said to be of steady mind.

दुःखेष्वनुद्विग्नमनाः सुखेषु विगतस्पृहः ।
वीतरागभयक्रोधः स्थितधीर्मुनिरुच्यते ॥२- ५६॥
duḥkheṣv anudvignamanāḥ sukheṣu vigataspṛhaḥ vītarāgabhayakrodhaḥ sthitadhīr munir ucyate 2.56

He whose mind is not agitated amid calamities, whose craving for pleasure is gone, who is freed from attachment (to worldly objects), fear and wrath, is said to be a Muni of steady mind.

यः सर्वत्रानभिस्नेहस्तत्तत्प्राप्य शुभाशुभम् ।
नाभिनन्दति न द्वेष्टि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥२- ५७॥
yaḥ sarvatrānabhisnehas tattatprāpya śubhāśubham nābhinandati na dveṣṭi tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā 2.57

His is steadiness of mind who is without affection everywhere, and who feeleth no exultation and no aversion on obtaining diverse objects that are agreeable and disagreeable.

यदा संहरते चायं कूर्मोऽङ्गानीव सर्वशः ।
इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥२- ५८॥
yadā saṃharate cāyaṃ kūrmoṅgānīva sarvaśaḥ indriyāṇīndriyārthebhyas tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā 2.58

When one withdraws his senses from the objects of (those) senses as the tortoise its limbs from all sides, even his is steadiness of mind.

विषया विनिवर्तन्ते निराहारस्य देहिनः ।
रसवर्जं रसोऽप्यस्य परं दृष्ट्वा निवर्तते ॥२- ५९॥
viṣayā vinivartante nirāhārasya dehinaḥ rasavarjaṃ rasopy asya paraṃ dṛṣṭvā nivartate 2.59

Objects of senses fall back from an abstinent person, but not so the passion (for those objects). Even the passion recedes from one who has beheld theSupreme (being).

यततो ह्यपि कौन्तेय पुरुषस्य विपश्चितः ।
इन्द्रियाणि प्रमाथीनि हरन्ति प्रसभं मनः ॥२- ६०॥
yatato hy api kaunteya puruṣasya vipaścitaḥ indriyāṇi pramāthīni haranti prasabhaṃ manaḥ 2.60

The agitating senses, O son of Kunti, forcibly draw away the mind of even a wise man striving hard to keep himself aloof from them.

तानि सर्वाणि संयम्य युक्त आसीत मत्परः ।
वशे हि यस्येन्द्रियाणि तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥२- ६१॥
tāni sarvāṇi saṃyamya yukta āsīta matparaḥ vaśe hi yasyendriyāṇi tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā 2.61

Restraining them all, one should stay in contemplation, making me his sole refuge. For his is steadiness of mind whose senses are under control.

ध्यायतो विषयान्पुंसः सङ्गस्तेषूपजायते ।
सङ्गात्संजायते कामः कामात्क्रोधोऽभिजायते ॥२- ६२॥
dhyāyato viṣayān puṃsaḥ saṅgas teṣūpajāyate saṅgāt sañjāyate kāmaḥ kāmāt krodhobhijāyate 2.62

Thinking of the objects of sense, a person's attachment is begotten towards them. From attachment springeth wrath;

क्रोधाद्भवति संमोहः संमोहात्स्मृतिविभ्रमः ।
स्मृतिभ्रंशाद्बुद्धिनाशो बुद्धिनाशात्प्रणश्यति ॥२- ६३॥
krodhād bhavati saṃmohaḥ saṃmohāt smṛtivibhramaḥ smṛtibhraṃśād buddhināśo buddhināśāt praṇaśyati 2.63

from wrath ariseth want of discrimination; from want of discrimination, loss of memory; from loss of memory, loss of understanding; and from loss of understanding (he) is utterly ruined.

रागद्वेषवियुक्तैस्तु विषयानिन्द्रियैश्चरन् ।
आत्मवश्यैर्विधेयात्मा प्रसादमधिगच्छति ॥२- ६४॥
rāgadveṣavimuktais tu viṣayān indriyaiś caran ātmavaśyair vidheyātmā prasādam adhigacchati 2.64

But the self-restrained man, enjoying objects (of sense) with senses freed from attachment and aversion under his own control, attaineth to peace (of mind).

प्रसादे सर्वदुःखानां हानिरस्योपजायते ।
प्रसन्नचेतसो ह्याशु बुद्धिः पर्यवतिष्ठते ॥२- ६५॥
prasāde sarvaduḥkhānāṃ hānir asyopajāyate prasannacetaso hy āśu buddhiḥ paryavatiṣṭhate 2.65

On peace (of mind) being attained, the annihilation of all his miseries taketh place, since the mind of him whose heart is peaceful soon becometh steady.

नास्ति बुद्धिरयुक्तस्य न चायुक्तस्य भावना ।
न चाभावयतः शान्तिरशान्तस्य कुतः सुखम् ॥२- ६६॥
nāsti buddhir ayuktasya na cāyuktasya bhāvanā na cābhāvayataḥ śāntir aśāntasya kutaḥ sukham 2.66.

2 He who is not self-restrained hath no contemplation (of self). He who hath no contemplation hath no peace (of mind).

इन्द्रियाणां हि चरतां यन्मनोऽनु विधीयते ।
तदस्य हरति प्रज्ञां वायुर्नावमिवाम्भसि ॥२- ६७॥
indriyāṇāṃ hi caratāṃ yan manonuvidhīyate tad asya harati prajñāṃ vāyur nāvam ivāmbhasi 2.67

3 Whence can there be happiness for him who hath no peace (of mind)? For the heart that follows in the wake of the sense moving (among their objects) destroys his understanding like the wind destroying a boat in the waters.

तस्माद्यस्य महाबाहो निगृहीतानि सर्वशः ।
इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेभ्यस्तस्य प्रज्ञा प्रतिष्ठिता ॥२- ६८॥
tasmād yasya mahābāho nigṛhītāni sarvaśaḥ indriyāṇīndriyārthebhyas tasya prajñā pratiṣṭhitā 2.68

4 Therefore, O thou of mighty arms, his is steadiness of mind whose senses are restrained on all sides from the objects of sense.

या निशा सर्वभूतानां तस्यां जागर्ति संयमी ।
यस्यां जाग्रति भूतानि सा निशा पश्यतो मुनेः ॥२- ६९॥
yā niśā sarvabhūtānāṃ tasyāṃ jāgarti saṃyamī yasyāṃ jāgrati bhūtāni sā niśā paśyato muneḥ 2.69

The restrained man is awake when it is night for all creatures; and when other creatures are awake that is night to a discerning Muni.

आपूर्यमाणमचलप्रतिष्ठं समुद्रमापः प्रविशन्ति यद्वत् ।
तद्वत्कामा यं प्रविशन्ति सर्वे स शान्तिमाप्नोति न कामकामी ॥२- ७०॥
āpūryamāṇam acalapratiṣṭhaṃ samudram āpaḥ praviśanti yadvat tadvat kāmā yaṃ praviśanti sarve sa śāntim āpnoti na kāmakāmī 2.70

5 He into whom all objects of desire enter, even as the waters enter the ocean which (though) constantly replenished still maintains its water-mark unchanged--(he) obtains peace (of mind) and not one that longeth for objects of desire.

विहाय कामान्यः सर्वान् पुमांश्चरति निःस्पृहः ।
निर्ममो निरहंकारः स शान्तिमधिगच्छति ॥२- ७१॥
vihāya kāmān yaḥ sarvān pumāṃś carati niḥspṛhaḥ nirmamo nirahaṃkāraḥ sa śāntim adhigacchhati 2.71

That man who moveth about, giving up all objects of desire, who is free from craving (for enjoyments) and who hath no affection and no pride, attaineth to peace (of mind)

एषा ब्राह्मी स्थितिः पार्थ नैनां प्राप्य विमुह्यति ।
स्थित्वास्यामन्तकालेऽपि ब्रह्मनिर्वाणमृच्छति ॥२- ७२॥
eṣā brāhmī sthitiḥ pārtha naināṃ prāpya vimuhyati sthitvāsyām antakālepi brahmanirvāṇam ṛcchati 2.72

This, O Partha, is the divine state. Attaining to it, one is never deluded. Abiding in it one obtains, on death, absorption into the Supreme Self.'

Chapter 3 कर्मयोगः

Section 13
अर्जुन उवाच
arjuna uvāca

Arjuna said,--

ज्यायसी चेत्कर्मणस्ते मता बुद्धिर्जनार्दन ।
तत्किं कर्मणि घोरे मां नियोजयसि केशव ॥३- १॥
jyāyasī cet karmaṇas te matā buddhir janārdana tat kiṃ karmaṇi ghore māṃ niyojayasi keśava 3.1

If devotion, O Janardana, is regarded by thee as superior to work, why then, O Kesava, dost thou engage me in such dreadful work?

व्यामिश्रेणेव वाक्येन बुद्धिं मोहयसीव मे ।
तदेकं वद निश्चित्य येन श्रेयोऽहमाप्नुयाम् ॥३- २॥
vyāmiśreṇeva vākyena buddhiṃ mohayasīva me tad ekaṃ vada niścitya yena śreyoham āpnuyām 3.2

By equivocal words thou seemest to confound my understanding. Therefore, tell (me) one thing definitely by which I may attain to what is good.'

Section 14
श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,--

लोकेऽस्मिन्द्विविधा निष्ठा पुरा प्रोक्ता मयानघ ।
ज्ञानयोगेन सांख्यानां कर्मयोगेन योगिनाम् ॥३- ३॥
lokesmin dvividhā niṣṭhā purā proktā mayānagha jñānayogena sāṅkhyānāṃ karmayogena yoginām 3.3

It hath already been said by me, O sinless one, that here are, in this world, two kinds of devotion; that of the Sankhyas through knowledge and that of the yogins through work.

न कर्मणामनारम्भान्नैष्कर्म्यं पुरुषोऽश्नुते ।
न च संन्यसनादेव सिद्धिं समधिगच्छति ॥३- ४॥
na karmaṇām anārambhān naiṣkarmyaṃ puruṣośnute na ca saṃnyasanād eva siddhiṃ samadhigacchati 3.4

A man doth not acquire freedom from work from (only) the non-performance of work. Nor doth he acquire final emancipation from only renunciation (of work).

न हि कश्चित्क्षणमपि जातु तिष्ठत्यकर्मकृत् ।
कार्यते ह्यवशः कर्म सर्वः प्रकृतिजैर्गुणैः ॥३- ५॥
na hi kaścit kṣaṇam api jātu tiṣṭhaty akarmakṛt kāryate hy avaśaḥ karma sarvaḥ prakṛtijair guṇaiḥ 3.5

No one can abide even for a moment without doing work.

कर्मेन्द्रियाणि संयम्य य आस्ते मनसा स्मरन् ।
इन्द्रियार्थान्विमूढात्मा मिथ्याचारः स उच्यते ॥३- ६॥
karmendriyāṇi saṃyamya ya āste manasā smaran indriyārthān vimūḍhātmā mithyācāraḥ sa ucyate 3.6

1 That man of deluded soul who, curbing the organs of sense, liveth mentally cherishing the objects of sense, is said to be a dissembler.

यस्त्विन्द्रियाणि मनसा नियम्यारभतेऽर्जुन ।
कर्मेन्द्रियैः कर्मयोगमसक्तः स विशिष्यते ॥३- ७॥
yas tv indriyāṇi manasā niyamyārabhaterjuna karmaindriyaiḥ karmayogam asaktaḥ sa viśiṣyate 3.7

नियतं कुरु कर्म त्वं कर्म ज्यायो ह्यकर्मणः ।
शरीरयात्रापि च ते न प्रसिद्ध्येदकर्मणः ॥३- ८॥
niyataṃ kuru karma tvaṃ karma jyāyo hy akarmaṇaḥ śarīrayātrāpi ca te na prasidhyed akarmaṇaḥ 3.8

He however, O Arjuna, who restraining (his) senses by his mind, engageth in devotion (in the form) of work with the organs of work, and is free from attachment, is distinguished (above all).

यज्ञार्थात्कर्मणोऽन्यत्र लोकोऽयं कर्मबन्धनः ।
तदर्थं कर्म कौन्तेय मुक्तसङ्गः समाचर ॥३- ९॥
yajñārthāt karmaṇonyatra lokoyaṃ karmabandhanaḥ tadarthaṃ karma kaunteya muktasaṅgaḥ samācara 3.9

(Therefore), do thou always apply yourself to work, for action is better than inaction.

सहयज्ञाः प्रजाः सृष्ट्वा पुरोवाच प्रजापतिः ।
अनेन प्रसविष्यध्वमेष वोऽस्त्विष्टकामधुक् ॥३- १०॥
sahayajñāḥ prajāḥ sṛṣṭvā purovāca prajāpatiḥ anena prasaviṣyadhvam eṣa vostv iṣṭakāmadhuk 3.10

Even the support of thy body cannot be accomplished without work.

देवान्भावयतानेन ते देवा भावयन्तु वः ।
परस्परं भावयन्तः श्रेयः परमवाप्स्यथ ॥३- ११॥
devān bhāvayatānena te devā bhāvayantu vaḥ parasparaṃ bhāvayantaḥ śreyaḥ param avāpsyatha 3.11

This world is fettered by all work other than that which is (performed) for Sacrifice

इष्टान्भोगान्हि वो देवा दास्यन्ते यज्ञभाविताः ।
तैर्दत्तानप्रदायैभ्यो यो भुङ्क्ते स्तेन एव सः ॥३- १२॥
iṣṭān bhogān hi vo devā dāsyante yajñabhāvitāḥ tair dattān apradāyaibhyo yo bhuṅkte stena eva saḥ 3.12

यज्ञशिष्टाशिनः सन्तो मुच्यन्ते सर्वकिल्बिषैः ।
भुञ्जते ते त्वघं पापा ये पचन्त्यात्मकारणात् ॥३- १३॥
yajñaśiṣṭāśinaḥ santo mucyante sarvakilbiṣaiḥ bhuñjate te tv aghaṃ pāpā ye pacanty ātmakāraṇāt 3.13

अन्नाद्भवन्ति भूतानि पर्जन्यादन्नसम्भवः ।
यज्ञाद्भवति पर्जन्यो यज्ञः कर्मसमुद्भवः ॥३- १४॥
annād bhavanti bhūtāni parjanyād annasaṃbhavaḥ yajñād bhavati parjanyo yajñaḥ karmasamudbhavaḥ 3.14

कर्म ब्रह्मोद्भवं विद्धि ब्रह्माक्षरसमुद्भवम् ।
तस्मात्सर्वगतं ब्रह्म नित्यं यज्ञे प्रतिष्ठितम् ॥३- १५॥
karma brahmodbhavaṃ viddhi brahmākṣarasamudbhavam tasmāt sarvagataṃ brahma nityaṃ yajñe pratiṣṭhitam 3.15

एवं प्रवर्तितं चक्रं नानुवर्तयतीह यः ।
अघायुरिन्द्रियारामो मोघं पार्थ स जीवति ॥३- १६॥
evaṃ pravartitaṃ cakraṃ nānuvartayatīha yaḥ aghāyur indriyārāmo moghaṃ pārtha sa jīvati 3.16

यस्त्वात्मरतिरेव स्यादात्मतृप्तश्च मानवः ।
आत्मन्येव च सन्तुष्टस्तस्य कार्यं न विद्यते ॥३- १७॥
yas tv ātmaratir eva syād ātmatṛptaś ca mānavaḥ ātmany eva ca saṃtuṣṭas tasya kāryaṃ na vidyate 3.17
s

नैव तस्य कृतेनार्थो नाकृतेनेह कश्चन ।
न चास्य सर्वभूतेषु कश्चिदर्थव्यपाश्रयः ॥३- १८॥
naiva tasya kṛtenārtho nākṛteneha kaścana na cāsya sarvabhūteṣu kaścid arthavyapāśrayaḥ 3.18

तस्मादसक्तः सततं कार्यं कर्म समाचर ।
असक्तो ह्याचरन्कर्म परमाप्नोति पूरुषः ॥३- १९॥
tasmād asaktaḥ satataṃ kāryaṃ karma samācara asakto hy ācaran karma param āpnoti pūruṣaḥ 3.19

कर्मणैव हि संसिद्धिमास्थिता जनकादयः ।
लोकसंग्रहमेवापि संपश्यन्कर्तुमर्हसि ॥३- २०॥
karmaṇaiva hi saṃsiddhim āsthitā janakādayaḥ lokasaṃgraham evāpi saṃpaśyan kartum arhasi 3.20

यद्यदाचरति श्रेष्ठस्तत्तदेवेतरो जनः ।
स यत्प्रमाणं कुरुते लोकस्तदनुवर्तते ॥३- २१॥
yadyad ācarati śreṣṭhas tattad evetaro janaḥ sa yat pramāṇaṃ kurute lokas tad anuvartate 3.21

न मे पार्थास्ति कर्तव्यं त्रिषु लोकेषु किंचन ।
नानवाप्तमवाप्तव्यं वर्त एव च कर्मणि ॥३- २२॥
na me pārthāsti kartavyaṃ triṣu lokeṣu kiṃcana nānavāptam avāptavyaṃ varta eva ca karmaṇi 3.22

यदि ह्यहं न वर्तेयं जातु कर्मण्यतन्द्रितः ।
मम वर्त्मानुवर्तन्ते मनुष्याः पार्थ सर्वशः ॥३- २३॥
yadi hy ahaṃ na varteyaṃ jātu karmaṇy atandritaḥ mama vartmānuvartante manuṣyāḥ pārtha sarvaśaḥ 3.23

उत्सीदेयुरिमे लोका न कुर्यां कर्म चेदहम् ।
संकरस्य च कर्ता स्यामुपहन्यामिमाः प्रजाः ॥३- २४॥
utsīdeyur ime lokā na kuryāṃ karma ced aham saṃkarasya ca kartā syām upahanyām imāḥ prajāḥ 3.24

सक्ताः कर्मण्यविद्वांसो यथा कुर्वन्ति भारत ।
कुर्याद्विद्वांस्तथासक्तश्चिकीर्षुर्लोकसंग्रहम् ॥३- २५॥
saktāḥ karmaṇy avidvāṃso yathā kurvanti bhārata kuryād vidvāṃs tathāsaktaś cikīrṣur lokasaṃgraham 3.25

न बुद्धिभेदं जनयेदज्ञानां कर्मसङ्गिनाम् ।
जोषयेत्सर्वकर्माणि विद्वान्युक्तः समाचरन् ॥३- २६॥
na buddhibhedaṃ janayed ajñānāṃ karmasaṃginām joṣayet sarvakarmāṇi vidvān yuktaḥ samācaran 3.26

प्रकृतेः क्रियमाणानि गुणैः कर्माणि सर्वशः ।
अहंकारविमूढात्मा कर्ताहमिति मन्यते ॥३- २७॥
prakṛteḥ kriyamāṇāni guṇaiḥ karmāṇi sarvaśaḥ ahaṃkāravimūḍhātmā kartāham iti manyate 3.27

तत्त्ववित्तु महाबाहो गुणकर्मविभागयोः ।
गुणा गुणेषु वर्तन्त इति मत्वा न सज्जते ॥३- २८॥
tattvavit tu mahābāho guṇakarmavibhāgayoḥ guṇā guṇeṣu vartanta iti matvā na sajjate 3.28

प्रकृतेर्गुणसंमूढाः सज्जन्ते गुणकर्मसु ।
तानकृत्स्नविदो मन्दान्कृत्स्नविन्न विचालयेत् ॥३- २९॥
prakṛter guṇasaṃmūḍhāḥ sajjante guṇakarmasu tān akṛtsnavido mandān kṛtsnavin na vicālayet 3.29

मयि सर्वाणि कर्माणि संन्यस्याध्यात्मचेतसा ।
निराशीर्निर्ममो भूत्वा युध्यस्व विगतज्वरः ॥३- ३०॥
mayi sarvāṇi karmāṇi saṃnyasyādhyātmacetasā nirāśīr nirmamo bhūtvā yudhyasva vigatajvaraḥ 3.30

ye me matam idaṃ nityam anutiṣṭhanti mānavāḥ śraddhāvantonasūyanto mucyante tepi karmabhiḥ 3.31
ये मे मतमिदं नित्यमनुतिष्ठन्ति मानवाः ।
श्रद्धावन्तोऽनसूयन्तो मुच्यन्ते तेऽपि कर्मभिः ॥३- ३१॥

ये त्वेतदभ्यसूयन्तो नानुतिष्ठन्ति मे मतम् ।
सर्वज्ञानविमूढांस्तान्विद्धि नष्टानचेतसः ॥३- ३२॥
ye tv etad abhyasūyanto nānutiṣṭhanti me matam sarvajñānavimūḍhāṃs tān viddhi naṣṭān acetasaḥ 3.32

सदृशं चेष्टते स्वस्याः प्रकृतेर्ज्ञानवानपि ।
प्रकृतिं यान्ति भूतानि निग्रहः किं करिष्यति ॥३- ३३॥
sadṛśaṃ ceṣṭate svasyāḥ prakṛter jñānavān api prakṛtiṃ yānti bhūtāni nigrahaḥ kiṃ kariṣyati 3.33

इन्द्रियस्येन्द्रियस्यार्थे रागद्वेषौ व्यवस्थितौ ।
तयोर्न वशमागच्छेत्तौ ह्यस्य परिपन्थिनौ ॥३- ३४॥
indriyasyendriyasyārthe rāgadveṣau vyavasthitau tayor na vaśam āgacchhet tau hy asya paripanthinau 3.34

श्रेयान्स्वधर्मो विगुणः परधर्मात्स्वनुष्ठितात् ।
स्वधर्मे निधनं श्रेयः परधर्मो भयावहः ॥३- ३५॥
śreyān svadharmo viguṇaḥ paradharmāt svanuṣṭhitāt svadharme nidhanaṃ śreyaḥ paradharmo bhayāvahaḥ 3.35

(Therefore), O son of Kunti, perform work for the sake of that, freed from attachment. 3 In olden times, the Lord of Creation, creating men and sacrifice together, said,--flourish by means of this (Sacrifice). Let this (Sacrifice) be to you (all) the dispenser of all objects cherished by you. Rear the gods with this, and let the gods (in return) rear you. Thus fulfilling the mutual interest you will obtain that which is beneficial (to you). 4 Propitiated with sacrifices the gods will bestow on you the pleasures you desire. He who enjoyeth (himself) without giving them what p. 60 they have given, is assuredly a thief. The good who eat the remnant of sacrifices are freed from all sins. Those unrighteous ones incur sin who dress food for their own sake.--From food are all creatures; and sacrifice is the outcome of work. 1 Know that work proceeds from the Vedas; Vedas have proceeded from Him who hath no decay. Therefore, the all-pervading Supreme Being is installed in sacrifice. 2 He who conformeth not to this wheel that is thus revolving, that man of sinful life delighting (the indulgence of) his senses, liveth in vain, O Partha. 3 The man, however, that is attached to self only, that is contented with self, and that is pleased in his self,--hath no work (to do). He hath no concern whatever with action nor with any omission here. Nor, amongst all creatures, is there any upon whom his interest dependeth. 4 Therefore, always do work that should be done, without attachment. The man who performeth work without attachment, attaineth to the Supreme. By work alone, Janaka and others, attained the accomplishment of their objects. Having regard also to the observance by men of their duties, it behoveth thee to work. Whatever a great man doth, is also done by vulgar people. Ordinary men follow the ideal set by them (the great). 5 There is nothing whatever for me, O Partha, to do in the three worlds, (since I have) nothing for me which hath not been acquired; still I engage in action. 6 Because if at any time I do not, without sloth, engage in action, men would follow my path, O Partha, on all sides. The worlds would perish if I did not perform work, and I should cause intermixture of castes and ruin these people. As the ignorant work, O Bharata, having attachment to the performer, so should a wise man work without being attached, desiring to make men observant of their duties. A wise man should not cause confusion of understanding amongst ignorant persons, who have attachment to work itself; (on the other hand) he should (himself) acting with devotion engage them to all (kinds of) work. All works are, in every way, done by the qualities of nature. He, whose mind is deluded p. 61 by egoism, however, regards himself as the actor. 1 But he, O mighty-armed one, who knoweth the distinction (of self) from qualities and work, is not attached to work, considering that it is his senses alone (and not his self) that engage in their objects. 2 Those who are deluded by the qualities of nature, become attached to the works done by the qualities. A person of perfect knowledge should not bewilder those men of imperfect knowledge. 3 Devoting all work to me, with (thy) mind directed to self, engage in battle, without desire, without affection and with thy (heart's) weakness dispelled. 4 Those men who always follow this opinion of mine with faith and without cavil attain to final emancipation even by work. But they who cavil at and do not follow this opinion of mine, know, that, bereft of all knowledge and without discrimination, they are ruined. Even a wise man acts according to his own nature. All living beings follow (their own) nature. What then would restraint avail? The senses have, as regards the objects of the senses, either affection or aversion fixed. One should not submit to these, for they are obstacles in one's way. 5 One's own duty, even if imperfectly performed, is better than being done by other even if well performed. Death in (performance of) one's own duty is preferable. (The adoption of) the duty of another carries fear (with it).

Section 15
अर्जुन उवाच
arjuna uvāca

Arjuna said,

अथ केन प्रयुक्तोऽयं पापं चरति पूरुषः ।
अनिच्छन्नपि वार्ष्णेय बलादिव नियोजितः ॥३- ३६॥
atha kena prayuktoyaṃ pāpaṃ carati pūruṣaḥ anicchann api vārṣṇeya balād iva niyojitaḥ 3.36

'Impelled by whom, O son of the Vrishni race, doth a man commit sin, even though unwilling and as if constrained by force'?

Section 16
श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,--'

काम एष क्रोध एष रजोगुणसमुद्भवः
महाशनो महापाप्मा विद्ध्येनमिह वैरिणम् ॥३- ३७॥
kāma eṣa krodha eṣa rajoguṇasamudbhavaḥ mahāśano mahāpāpmā viddhy enam iha vairiṇam 3.37

It is desire, it is wrath, born of the attribute of passion; it is all devouring, it is very sinful. Know this to be the foe in this world.

धूमेनाव्रियते वह्निर्यथादर्शो मलेन च
यथोल्बेनावृतो गर्भस्तथा तेनेदमावृतम् ॥३- ३८॥
dhūmenāvriyate vanhir yathādarśo malena ca yatholbenāvṛto garbhas tathā tenedam āvṛtam 3.38

As fire is enveloped by smoke, a mirror by dust, the foetus by the womb, so is this enveloped by desire.

आवृतं ज्ञानमेतेन ज्ञानिनो नित्यवैरिणा
कामरूपेण कौन्तेय दुष्पूरेणानलेन च ॥३- ३९॥
āvṛtaṃ jñānam etena jñānino nityavairiṇā kāmarupeṇa kaunteya duṣpūreṇānalena ca 3.39

Knowledge, O son of Kunti, is enveloped by this constant foe of the wise in the form of desire which is insatiable and like a fire.

इन्द्रियाणि मनो बुद्धिरस्याधिष्ठानमुच्यते
एतैर्विमोहयत्येष ज्ञानमावृत्य देहिनम् ॥३- ४०॥
indriyāṇi mano buddhir asyādhiṣṭhānam ucyate etair vimohayaty eṣa jñānam āvṛtya dehinam 3.40

The senses, the mind and the understanding are said to be its abode. With these it deludeth the embodied self, enveloping (his) knowledge.

तस्मात्त्वमिन्द्रियाण्यादौ नियम्य भरतर्षभ
पाप्मानं प्रजहि ह्येनं ज्ञानविज्ञाननाशनम् ॥३- ४१॥
tasmāt tvam indriyāṇy ādau niyamya bharatarṣabha pāpmānaṃ prajahi hy enaṃ jñānavijñānanāśanam 3.41

Therefore, restraining (thy) senses first, O bull of Bharata's race, cast off this wicked thing, for it destroyeth knowledge derived from instruction and meditation.

इन्द्रियाणि पराण्याहुरिन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनः
मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्यो बुद्धेः परतस्तु सः ॥३- ४२॥
indriyāṇi parāṇy āhur indriyebhyaḥ paraṃ manaḥ manasas tu parā buddhir yo buddheḥ paratas tu saḥ 3.42

It hath been said that the senses are superior (to the body which is inert). Superior to the senses is the mind. Superior to the mind is the knowledge. But which is superior to knowledge is He.

एवं बुद्धेः परं बुद्ध्वा संस्तभ्यात्मानमात्मना
जहि शत्रुं महाबाहो कामरूपं दुरासदम् ॥३- ४३॥
evaṃ buddheḥ paraṃ buddhvā saṃstabhyātmānam ātmanā jahi śatruṃ mahābāho kāmarūpaṃ durāsadam 3.43

Thus knowing that which is superior to knowledge and restraining (thy) self by self, slay, O mighty-armed one, the enemy in the shape of desire which is difficult to conquer.'

Chapter 4 ज्ञानकर्मसंन्यासयोगः

श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,--'

इमं विवस्वते योगं प्रोक्तवानहमव्ययम्
विवस्वान्मनवे प्राह मनुरिक्ष्वाकवेऽब्रवीत् ॥४-१॥
imaṃ vivasvate yogaṃ proktavān aham avyayam vivasvān manave prāha manur ikṣvākavebravīt 4.1

This imperishable (system of) devotion I declared to Vivaswat: Vivaswat declared it to Manu; and Manu communicated it to Ikshaku.

एवं परम्पराप्राप्तमिमं राजर्षयो विदुः
स कालेनेह महता योगो नष्टः परन्तप ॥४-२॥
evaṃ paramparāprāptam imaṃ rājarṣayo viduḥ sa kāleneha mahatā yogo naṣṭaḥ paraṃtapa 4.2

Descending thus from generation, the Royal sages came to know it. But, O chastiser of foes, by (lapse of a) long time that devotion became lost to the world.

स एवायं मया तेऽद्य योगः प्रोक्तः पुरातनः
भक्तोऽसि मे सखा चेति रहस्यं ह्येतदुत्तमम् ॥४-३॥
sa evāyaṃ mayā tedya yogaḥ proktaḥ purātanaḥ bhaktosi me sakhā ceti rahasyaṃ hy etad uttamam 4.3

Even the same (system of) devotion hath today been declared by me to thee, for thou art my devotee and friend, (and) this is a great mystery.'

Section 17
अर्जुन उवाच
arjuna uvāca

Arjuna said,

अपरं भवतो जन्म परं जन्म विवस्वतः ।
कथमेतद्विजानीयां त्वमादौ प्रोक्तवानिति ॥४-४॥
aparaṃ bhavato janma paraṃ janma vivasvataḥ katham etad vijānīyāṃ tvam ādau proktavān iti 4.4

Thy birth is posterior; Vivaswat's birth is prior. How shall I understand then that thou hadst first declared (it)?'

Section 18
श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavānuvāca

The Holy One said,--'

बहूनि मे व्यतीतानि जन्मानि तव चार्जुन ।
तान्यहं वेद सर्वाणि न त्वं वेत्थ परन्तप ॥४-५॥
bahūni me vyatītāni janmāni tava cārjuna tāny ahaṃ veda sarvāṇi na tvaṃ vettha paraṃtapa 4.5

Many births of mine have passed away, O Arjuna, as also of thine. These all I know, but thou dost not, O chastiser of foes.

अजोऽपि सन्नव्ययात्मा भूतानामीश्वरोऽपि सन् ।
प्रकृतिं स्वामधिष्ठाय संभवाम्यात्ममायया ॥४-६॥
ajopi sann avyayātmā bhūtānām īśvaropi san prakṛtiṃ svām adhiṣṭhāya saṃbhavāmy ātmamāyayā 4.6

Though (I am) unborn and of essence that knoweth no deterioration, though (I am) the lord of all creatures, still, relying on my own (material) nature I take birth by my own (powers) of illusion.

यदा यदा हि धर्मस्य ग्लानिर्भवति भारत ।
अभ्युत्थानमधर्मस्य तदात्मानं सृजाम्यहम् ॥४-७॥
yadā yadā hi dharmasya glānir bhavati bhārata abhyutthānam adharmasya tadātmānaṃ sṛjāmy aham 4.7

Whenever, O Bharata, loss of piety and the rise of impiety occurreth, on those occasions do I create myself.

परित्राणाय साधूनां विनाशाय च दुष्कृताम् ।
धर्मसंस्थापनार्थाय सम्भवामि युगे युगे ॥४-८॥
paritrāṇāya sādhūnāṃ vināśāya ca duṣkṛtām dharmasaṃsthāpanārthāya saṃbhavāmi yuge yuge 4.8

For the protection of the righteous and for the destruction of the evil doers, for the sake of establishing Piety, I am born age after age.

जन्म कर्म च मे दिव्यमेवं यो वेत्ति तत्त्वतः ।
त्यक्त्वा देहं पुनर्जन्म नैति मामेति सोऽर्जुन ॥४-९॥
janma karma ca me divyam evaṃ yo vetti tattvataḥ tyaktvā dehaṃ punarjanma naiti mām eti sorjuna 4.9

He who truly knoweth my divine birth and work to be such, casting off (his body) is not born again; (on the other hand) he cometh to me, O Arjuna.

वीतरागभयक्रोधा मन्मया मामुपाश्रिताः ।
बहवो ज्ञानतपसा पूता मद्भावमागताः ॥४-१०॥
vītarāgabhayakrodhā manmayā mām upāśritāḥ bahavo jñānatapasā pūtā madbhāvam āgatāḥ 4.10

Many who have been freed from attachment, fear, wrath, who were full of me, and who relied on me, have, cleansed by knowledge and asceticism, attained to my essence.

ये यथा मां प्रपद्यन्ते तांस्तथैव भजाम्यहम् ।
मम वर्त्मानुवर्तन्ते मनुष्याः पार्थ सर्वशः ॥४-११॥
ye yathā māṃ prapadyante tāṃs tathaiva bhajāmy aham mama vartmānuvartante manuṣyāḥ pārtha sarvaśaḥ 4.11

In whatsoever manner men come to me, in the selfsame manner do I accept them. It is my way, O Partha, that men follow on all sides.

काङ्क्षन्तः कर्मणां सिद्धिं यजन्त इह देवताः ।
क्षिप्रं हि मानुषे लोके सिद्धिर्भवति कर्मजा ॥४-१२॥
kāṃkṣantaḥ karmaṇāṃ siddhiṃ yajanta iha devatāḥ kṣipraṃ hi mānuṣe loke siddhir bhavati karmajā 4.12

Those in this world who are desirous of the success of action worship the gods, for in this world of men success resulting from action is soon attained.

चातुर्वर्ण्यं मया सृष्टं गुणकर्मविभागशः ।
तस्य कर्तारमपि मां विद्ध्यकर्तारमव्ययम् ॥४-१३॥
cāturvarṇyaṃ mayā sṛṣṭaṃ guṇakarmavibhāgaśaḥ tasya kartāram api māṃ viddhy akartāram avyayam 4.13

The quadruple division of castes was created by me according to the distinction of qualities and duties. Though I am the author thereof, (yet) know me to be not their author and undecaying.

न मां कर्माणि लिम्पन्ति न मे कर्मफले स्पृहा ।
इति मां योऽभिजानाति कर्मभिर्न स बध्यते ॥४-१४॥
na māṃ karmāṇi limpanti na me karmaphale spṛhā iti māṃ yobhijānāti karmabhir na sa badhyate 4.14

Actions do not touch me. I have no longing for the fruits of actions. He that knoweth me thus is not impeded by actions.

एवं ज्ञात्वा कृतं कर्म पूर्वैरपि मुमुक्षुभिः ।
कुरु कर्मैव तस्मात्त्वं पूर्वैः पूर्वतरं कृतम् ॥४-१५॥
evaṃ jñātvā kṛtaṃ karma pūrvair api mumukṣubhiḥ kuru karmaiva tasmāt tvaṃ pūrvaiḥ pūrvataraṃ kṛtam 4.15

Knowing this, even men of old who were desirous of emancipation performed work. Therefore, do thou also perform work as was done by ancients of the remote past.

किं कर्म किमकर्मेति कवयोऽप्यत्र मोहिताः ।
तत्ते कर्म प्रवक्ष्यामि यज्ज्ञात्वा मोक्ष्यसेऽशुभात् ॥४-१६॥
kiṃ karma kimakarmeti kavayopy atra mohitāḥ tat te karma pravakṣyāmi yaj jñātvā mokṣyaseśubhāt 4.16

What is action and what is inaction,--even the learned are perplexed at this.

कर्मणो ह्यपि बोद्धव्यं बोद्धव्यं च विकर्मणः ।
अकर्मणश्च बोद्धव्यं गहना कर्मणो गतिः ॥४-१७॥
karmaṇo hy api boddhavyaṃ boddhavyaṃ ca vikarmaṇaḥ akarmaṇaś ca boddhavyaṃ gahanā karmaṇo gatiḥ 4.17

कर्मण्यकर्म यः पश्येदकर्मणि च कर्म यः ।
स बुद्धिमान्मनुष्येषु स युक्तः कृत्स्नकर्मकृत् ॥४-१८॥
karmaṇy akarma yaḥ paśyed akarmaṇi ca karma yaḥ sa buddhimān manuṣyeṣu sa yuktaḥ kṛtsnakarmakṛt 4.18

यस्य सर्वे समारम्भाः कामसंकल्पवर्जिताः ।
ज्ञानाग्निदग्धकर्माणं तमाहुः पण्डितं बुधाः ॥४-१९॥
yasya sarve samārambhāḥ kāmasaṃkalpavarjitāḥ jñānāgnidagdhakarmāṇaṃ tam āhuḥ paṇḍitaṃ budhāḥ 4.19

त्यक्त्वा कर्मफलासङ्गं नित्यतृप्तो निराश्रयः ।
कर्मण्यभिप्रवृत्तोऽपि नैव किंचित्करोति सः ॥४-२०॥
tyaktvā karmaphalāsaṅgaṃ nityatṛpto nirāśrayaḥ karmaṇy abhipravṛttopi naiva kiṃcit karoti saḥ 4.20

निराशीर्यतचित्तात्मा त्यक्तसर्वपरिग्रहः ।
शारीरं केवलं कर्म कुर्वन्नाप्नोति किल्बिषम् ॥४-२१॥
nirāśīr yatacittātmā tyaktasarvaparigrahaḥ śārīraṃ kevalaṃ karma kurvan nāpnoti kilbiṣam 4.21

यदृच्छालाभसंतुष्टो द्वन्द्वातीतो विमत्सरः ।
समः सिद्धावसिद्धौ च कृत्वापि न निबध्यते ॥४-२२॥
yadṛcchālābhasaṃtuṣṭo dvandvātīto vimatsaraḥ samaḥ siddhāv asiddhau ca kṛtvāpi na nibadhyate 4.22

गतसङ्गस्य मुक्तस्य ज्ञानावस्थितचेतसः ।
यज्ञायाचरतः कर्म समग्रं प्रविलीयते ॥४-२३॥
gatasaṅgasya muktasya jñānāvasthitacetasaḥ yajñāyācarataḥ karma samagraṃ pravilīyate 4.23

ब्रह्मार्पणं ब्रह्म हविर्ब्रह्माग्नौ ब्रह्मणा हुतम् ।
ब्रह्मैव तेन गन्तव्यं ब्रह्मकर्मसमाधिना ॥४-२४॥
brahmārpaṇaṃ brahma havir brahmāgnau brahmaṇāhutam brahmaiva tena gantavyaṃ brahmakarmasamādhinā 4.24

दैवमेवापरे यज्ञं योगिनः पर्युपासते ।
ब्रह्माग्नावपरे यज्ञं यज्ञेनैवोपजुह्वति ॥४-२५॥
daivam evāpare yajñaṃ yoginaḥ paryupāsate brahmāgnāv apare yajñaṃ yajñenaivopajuvhati 4.25

श्रोत्रादीनीन्द्रियाण्यन्ये संयमाग्निषु जुह्वति ।
शब्दादीन्विषयानन्य इन्द्रियाग्निषु जुह्वति ॥४-२६॥
śrotrādīnīndriyāṇy anye saṃyamāgniṣu juvhati śabdādīn viṣayān anya indriyāgniṣu juvhati 4.26

सर्वाणीन्द्रियकर्माणि प्राणकर्माणि चापरे ।
आत्मसंयमयोगाग्नौ जुह्वति ज्ञानदीपिते ॥४-२७॥
sarvāṇīndriyakarmāṇi prāṇakarmāṇi cāpare ātmasaṃyamayogāgnau juvhati jñānadīpite 4.27

द्रव्ययज्ञास्तपोयज्ञा योगयज्ञास्तथापरे ।
स्वाध्यायज्ञानयज्ञाश्च यतयः संशितव्रताः ॥४-२८॥
dravyayajñās tapoyajñā yogayajñās tathāpare svādhyāyajñānayajñāś ca yatayaḥ saṃśitavratāḥ 4.28

अपाने जुह्वति प्राणं प्राणेऽपानं तथापरे ।
प्राणापानगती रुद्ध्वा प्राणायामपरायणाः ॥४-२९॥
apāne juvhati prāṇaṃ prāṇepānaṃ tathāpare prāṇāpānagatī ruddhvā prāṇāyāmaparāyaṇāḥ 4.29

अपरे नियताहाराः प्राणान्प्राणेषु जुह्वति ।
सर्वेऽप्येते यज्ञविदो यज्ञक्षपितकल्मषाः ॥४-३०॥
apare niyatāhārāḥ prāṇān prāṇeṣu juvhati sarvepy ete yajñavido yajñakṣapitakalmaṣāḥ 4.30

यज्ञशिष्टामृतभुजो यान्ति ब्रह्म सनातनम् ।
नायं लोकोऽस्त्ययज्ञस्य कुतोऽन्यः कुरुसत्तम ॥४-३१॥
yajñaśiṣṭāmṛtabhujo yānti brahma sanātanam nāyaṃ lokosty ayajñasya kutonyaḥ kurusattama 4.31

एवं बहुविधा यज्ञा वितता ब्रह्मणो मुखे ।
कर्मजान्विद्धि तान्सर्वानेवं ज्ञात्वा विमोक्ष्यसे ॥४-३२॥
evaṃ bahuvidhā yajñā vitatā brahmaṇo mukhe karmajān viddhi tān sarvān evaṃ jñātvā vimokṣyase 4.32

श्रेयान्द्रव्यमयाद्यज्ञाज्ज्ञानयज्ञः परन्तप ।
सर्वं कर्माखिलं पार्थ ज्ञाने परिसमाप्यते ॥४-३३॥
śreyān dravyamayād yajñāj jñānayajñaḥ paraṃtapa sarvaṃ karmākhilaṃ pārtha jñāne parisamāpyate 4.33

तद्विद्धि प्रणिपातेन परिप्रश्नेन सेवया ।
उपदेक्ष्यन्ति ते ज्ञानं ज्ञानिनस्तत्त्वदर्शिनः ॥४-३४॥
tad viddhi praṇipātena paripraśnena sevayā upadekṣyanti te jñānaṃ jñāninas tattvadarśinaḥ 4.34

यज्ज्ञात्वा न पुनर्मोहमेवं यास्यसि पाण्डव ।
येन भूतान्यशेषेण द्रक्ष्यस्यात्मन्यथो मयि ॥४-३५॥
yaj jñātvā na punar moham evaṃ yāsyasi pāṇḍava yena bhūtāny aśeṣeṇa drakṣyasy ātmany atho mayi 4.35

अपि चेदसि पापेभ्यः सर्वेभ्यः पापकृत्तमः ।
सर्वं ज्ञानप्लवेनैव वृजिनं सन्तरिष्यसि ॥४-३६॥
api ced asi pāpebhyaḥ sarvebhyaḥ pāpakṛttamaḥ sarvaṃ jñānaplavenaiva vṛjinaṃ saṃtariṣyasi 4.36

यथैधांसि समिद्धोऽग्निर्भस्मसात्कुरुतेऽर्जुन ।
ज्ञानाग्निः सर्वकर्माणि भस्मसात्कुरुते तथा ॥४-३७॥
yathaidhāṃsi samiddhognir bhasmasāt kuruterjuna jñānāgniḥ sarvakarmāṇi bhasmasāt kurute tathā 4.37

न हि ज्ञानेन सदृशं पवित्रमिह विद्यते ।
तत्स्वयं योगसंसिद्धः कालेनात्मनि विन्दति ॥४-३८॥
na hi jñānena sadṛśaṃ pavitram iha vidyate tat svayaṃ yogasaṃsiddhaḥ kālenātmani vindati 4.38

श्रद्धावाँल्लभते ज्ञानं तत्परः संयतेन्द्रियः ।
ज्ञानं लब्ध्वा परां शान्तिमचिरेणाधिगच्छति ॥४-३९॥
śraddhāvāṃl labhate jñānaṃ tatparaḥ saṃyatendriyaḥ jñānaṃ labdhvā parāṃ śāntim acireṇādhigacchati 4.39

अज्ञश्चाश्रद्दधानश्च संशयात्मा विनश्यति ।
नायं लोकोऽस्ति न परो न सुखं संशयात्मनः ॥४-४०॥
ajñaś cāśraddadhānaś ca saṃśayātmā vinaśyati nāyaṃ lokosti na paro na sukhaṃ saṃśayātmanaḥ 4.40

योगसंन्यस्तकर्माणं ज्ञानसंछिन्नसंशयम् ।
आत्मवन्तं न कर्माणि निबध्नन्ति धनंजय ॥४-४१॥
yogasaṃnyastakarmāṇaṃ jñānasaṃchinnasaṃśayam ātmavantaṃ na karmāṇi nibadhnanti dhanaṃjaya 4.41

तस्मादज्ञानसम्भूतं हृत्स्थं ज्ञानासिनात्मनः ।
छित्त्वैनं संशयं योगमातिष्ठोत्तिष्ठ भारत ॥४-४२॥
tasmād ajñānasañbhūtaṃ hṛtsthaṃ jñānāsinātmanaḥ chittvainaṃ saṃśayaṃ yogam ātiṣṭhottiṣṭha bhārata 4.42

Therefore, I will tell thee about action (so that) knowing it thou mayst be freed from evil. One should have knowledge of action, and one should have knowledge of forbidden actions: one should also know of inaction. The course of action is incomprehensible. He, who sees inaction in action and action in inaction, is wise among men; he is possessed of devotion; and he is a doer of all actions. The learned call him wise whose efforts are all free from desire (of fruit) and (consequent) will, and whose actions have all been consumed by the fire of knowledge. 2 Whoever, resigning all attachment to the fruit of action, is ever contented and is dependent on none, doth nought, indeed, although engaged in action. He who, without desire, with mind and the senses under control, and casting off all concerns, performeth action only for the preservation of the body, incurreth no sin. 3 He who is contented with what is earned without exertion, who hath risen superior to the pairs of opposites, who is without jealousy, who is equable in success and failure, is not fettered (by action) even though he works. All his actions perish who acts for the sake of sacrifice, 4 who is without affections, who is free (from attachments), and whose mind is fixed upon knowledge. Brahma is the vessel (with which the libation is poured); Brahma is the libation (that is offered); Brahma is the fire on which by Brahma is poured (the libation); Brahma is the goal to which he proceedeth by fixing his mind on Brahma itself which is the action. 5 Some devotees perform sacrifice to the gods. Others, by means of sacrifice, offer up sacrifices to the fire of Brahma. 6 Others offer up (as sacrificial libation) the senses of which hearing is the first to the fire of restraint. Others (again) offer up (as libations) the objects of sense of which sound is the first to the fire of the p. 64 senses. 1 Others (again) offer up all the functions of the senses and the functions of the vital winds to the fire of devotion by self-restraint kindled by knowledge. 2 Others again perform the sacrifice of wealth, the sacrifice of ascetic austerities, the sacrifice of meditation, the sacrifice of (Vedic) study, the sacrifice of knowledge, and others are ascetics of rigid vows. 3 Some offer up the upward vital wind (Prana) to the downward vital wind (apana); and others, the downward vital wind to the upward vital wind; some, arresting the course of (both) the upward and the downward vital winds, are devoted to the restraint of the vital winds. Others of restricted rations, offer the vital winds to the vital winds. 4 Even all these who are conversant with sacrifice, whose sins have been consumed by sacrifice, and who eat the remnants of sacrifice which are amrita, attain to the eternal Brahma. (Even) this world is not for him who doth not perform sacrifice. Whence then the other, O best of Kuru's race? Thus diverse are the sacrifices occurring in the Vedas. Know that all of them result from action, and knowing this thou wilt be emancipated. The sacrifice of knowledge, O chastiser of foes, is superior to every sacrifice involving (the attainment of) fruits of action, for all action, O Partha, is wholly comprehended in knowledge. 5 Learn that (Knowledge) by prostration, enquiry, and service. They who are possessed of knowledge and can see the truth, will teach thee that knowledge, knowing which, O son of Pandu, thou wilt not again come by such delusion, and by which thou wilt see the endless creatures (of the universe) in thyself (first) and then in me. Even if thou be the greatest sinner among all that are sinful, thou shalt yet cross over all transgressions by the raft of knowledge. As a blazing fire, O Arjuna, reduceth fuel to ashes, so doth the fire of knowledge reduce all actions to ashes. For there is nothing here that is so cleansing as knowledge. One who hath attained to success by devotion finds it without effort within his own self in time. He obtaineth knowledge, who hath faith and is intent on it and who hath his senses under control; obtaining knowledge one findeth the highest tranquillity in no length of time. One who hath no knowledge and no faith, and whose minds is full of doubt, is lost. Neither this world, nor the next, nor happiness, is for him whose mind is full of doubt. Actions do not fetter him, O Dhananjaya, who hath cast off action by devotion, whose doubts have been dispelled by knowledge, and who is self-restrained. Therefore, destroying, by the sword of knowledge, p. 65 this doubt of thine that is born of ignorance and that dwelleth in thy mind, betake to devotion, (and) arise, O son of Bharata.'

Chapter 5 कर्मसंन्यासयोगः

Section 19
अर्जुन उवाच
arjuna uvāca

Arjuna said,

संन्यासं कर्मणां कृष्ण पुनर्योगं च शंससि ।
यच्छ्रेय एतयोरेकं तन्मे ब्रूहि सुनिश्चितम् ॥५- १॥
saṃnyāsaṃ karmaṇāṃ kṛṣṇa punar yogaṃ ca śaṃsasi yac chreya etayor ekaṃ tan me brūhi suniścitam 5.1

Thou applaudest, O Krishna, the abandonment of actions, and again the application (to them). Tell me definitely which one of these two is superior.

Section 20
श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,--'

संन्यासः कर्मयोगश्च निःश्रेयसकरावुभौ ।
तयोस्तु कर्मसंन्यासात्कर्मयोगो विशिष्यते ॥५- २॥
saṃnyāsaḥ karmayogaś ca niḥśreyasakarāv ubhau tayos tu karmasaṃnyāsāt karmayogo viśiṣyate 5.2

ज्ञेयः स नित्यसंन्यासी यो न द्वेष्टि न काङ्क्षति ।
निर्द्वन्द्वो हि महाबाहो सुखं बन्धात्प्रमुच्यते ॥५- ३॥
jñeyaḥ sa nityasaṃnyāsī yo na dveṣṭi na kāṅkṣati nirdvandvo hi mahābāho sukhaṃ bandhāt pramucyate 5.3

सांख्ययोगौ पृथग्बालाः प्रवदन्ति न पण्डिताः ।
एकमप्यास्थितः सम्यगुभयोर्विन्दते फलम् ॥५- ४॥
sāṃkhyayogau pṛthag bālāḥ pravadanti na paṇḍitāḥ ekam apy āsthitaḥ samyag ubhayor vindate phalam 5.4

यत्सांख्यैः प्राप्यते स्थानं तद्योगैरपि गम्यते ।
एकं सांख्यं च योगं च यः पश्यति स: पश्यति ॥५- ५॥
yat sāṃkhyaiḥ prāpyate sthānaṃ tad yogair api gamyate ekaṃ sāṃkhyaṃ ca yogaṃ ca yaḥ paśyati sa paśyati 5.5

संन्यासस्तु महाबाहो दुःखमाप्तुमयोगतः ।
योगयुक्तो मुनिर्ब्रह्म नचिरेणाधिगच्छति ॥५- ६॥
saṃnyāsas tu mahābāho duḥkham āptum ayogataḥ yogayukto munir brahma nacireṇādhigacchati 5.6

योगयुक्तो विशुद्धात्मा विजितात्मा जितेन्द्रियः ।
सर्वभूतात्मभूतात्मा कुर्वन्नपि न लिप्यते ॥५- ७॥
yogayukto viśuddhātmā vijitātmā jitendriyaḥ sarvabhūtātmabhūtātmā kurvann api na lipyate 5.7

नैव किंचित्करोमीति युक्तो मन्येत तत्त्ववित् ।
पश्यञ्श्रृण्वन्स्पृशञ्जिघ्रन्नश्नन्गच्छन्स्वपञ्श्वसन् ॥५- ८॥
naiva kiṃcit karomīti yukto manyeta tattvavit paśyañ śṛṇvan spṛśañ jighrann aśnan gacchan svapañśvasan 5.8

प्रलपन्विसृजन्गृह्णन्नुन्मिषन्निमिषन्नपि ।
इन्द्रियाणीन्द्रियार्थेषु वर्तन्त इति धारयन् ॥५- ९॥
pralapan visṛjan gṛhṇann unmiṣan nimiṣann api indriyāṇīndriyārtheṣu vartanta iti dhārayan 5.9

ब्रह्मण्याधाय कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा करोति यः ।
लिप्यते न स पापेन पद्मपत्रमिवाम्भसा ॥५- १०॥
brahmaṇy ādhāya karmāṇi saṅgaṃ tyaktvā karoti yaḥ lipyate na sa pāpena padmapatram ivāmbhasā 5.10

कायेन मनसा बुद्ध्या केवलैरिन्द्रियैरपि ।
योगिनः कर्म कुर्वन्ति सङ्गं त्यक्त्वात्मशुद्धये ॥५- ११॥
kāyena manasā buddhyā kevalair indriyair api yoginaḥ karma kurvanti saṅgaṃ tyaktvātmaśuddhaye 5.11

युक्तः कर्मफलं त्यक्त्वा शान्तिमाप्नोति नैष्ठिकीम् ।
अयुक्तः कामकारेण फले सक्तो निबध्यते ॥५- १२॥
yuktaḥ karmaphalaṃ tyaktvā śāntim āpnoti naiṣṭhikīm ayuktaḥ kāmakāreṇa phale sakto nibadhyate 5.12

सर्वकर्माणि मनसा संन्यस्यास्ते सुखं वशी ।
नवद्वारे पुरे देही नैव कुर्वन्न कारयन् ॥५- १३॥
sarvakarmāṇi manasā saṃnyasyāste sukhaṃ vaśī navadvāre pure dehī naiva kurvan na kārayan 5.13

न कर्तृत्वं न कर्माणि लोकस्य सृजति प्रभुः ।
न कर्मफलसंयोगं स्वभावस्तु प्रवर्तते ॥५- १४॥
na kartṛtvaṃ na karmāṇi lokasya sṛjati prabhuḥ na karmaphalasaṃyogaṃ svabhāvas tu pravartate 5.14

नादत्ते कस्यचित्पापं न चैव सुकृतं विभुः ।
अज्ञानेनावृतं ज्ञानं तेन मुह्यन्ति जन्तवः ॥५- १५॥
nādatte kasyacit pāpaṃ na caiva sukṛtaṃ vibhuḥ ajñānenāvṛtaṃ jñānaṃ tena muhyanti jantavaḥ 5.15

ज्ञानेन तु तदज्ञानं येषां नाशितमात्मनः ।
तेषामादित्यवज्ज्ञानं प्रकाशयति तत्परम् ॥५- १६॥
jñānena tu tad ajñānaṃ yeṣāṃ nāśitam ātmanaḥ teṣām ādityavaj jñānaṃ prakāśayati tat param 5.16

तद्बुद्धयस्तदात्मानस्तन्निष्ठास्तत्परायणाः ।
गच्छन्त्यपुनरावृत्तिं ज्ञाननिर्धूतकल्मषाः ॥५- १७॥
tadbuddhayas tadātmānas tanniṣṭhās tatparāyaṇāḥ gacchanty apunarāvṛttiṃ jñānanirdhūtakalmaṣāḥ 5.17

विद्याविनयसंपन्ने ब्राह्मणे गवि हस्तिनि ।
शुनि चैव श्वपाके च पण्डिताः समदर्शिनः ॥५- १८॥
vidyāvinayasaṃpanne brāhmaṇe gavi hastini śuni caiva śvapāke ca paṇḍitāḥ samadarśinaḥ 5.18

इहैव तैर्जितः सर्गो येषां साम्ये स्थितं मनः ।
निर्दोषं हि समं ब्रह्म तस्माद्ब्रह्मणि ते स्थिताः ॥५- १९॥
ihaiva tair jitaḥ sargo yeṣāṃ sāmye sthitaṃ manaḥ nirdoṣaṃ hi samaṃ brahma tasmād brahmaṇi te sthitāḥ 5.19

न प्रहृष्येत्प्रियं प्राप्य नोद्विजेत्प्राप्य चाप्रियम् ।
स्थिरबुद्धिरसंमूढो ब्रह्मविद्ब्रह्मणि स्थितः ॥५- २०॥
na prahṛṣyet priyaṃ prāpya nodvijet prāpya cāpriyam sthirabuddhir asaṃmūḍho brahmavid brahmaṇi sthitaḥ 5.20

बाह्यस्पर्शेष्वसक्तात्मा विन्दत्यात्मनि यत् सुखम् ।
स ब्रह्मयोगयुक्तात्मा सुखमक्षयमश्नुते ॥५- २१॥
bāhyasparśeṣv asaktātmā vindaty ātmani yat sukham sa brahmayogayuktātmā sukham akṣayam aśnute 5.21

ये हि संस्पर्शजा भोगा दुःखयोनय एव ते ।
आद्यन्तवन्तः कौन्तेय न तेषु रमते बुधः ॥५- २२॥
ye hi saṃsparśajā bhogā duḥkhayonaya eva te ādyantavantaḥ kaunteya na teṣu ramate budhaḥ 5.22

शक्नोतीहैव यः सोढुं प्राक्शरीरविमोक्षणात् ।
कामक्रोधोद्भवं वेगं स युक्तः स सुखी नरः ॥५- २३॥
śaknotīhaiva yaḥ soḍhuṃ prāk śarīravimokṣaṇāt kāmakrodhodbhavaṃ vegaṃ sa yuktaḥ sa sukhī naraḥ 5.23

योऽन्तःसुखोऽन्तरारामस्तथान्तर्ज्योतिरेव यः ।
स योगी ब्रह्मनिर्वाणं ब्रह्मभूतोऽधिगच्छति ॥५- २४॥
yontaḥsukhontarārāmas tathāntarjyotir eva yaḥ sa yogī brahmanirvāṇaṃ brahmabhūtodhigacchati 5.24

लभन्ते ब्रह्मनिर्वाणमृषयः क्षीणकल्मषाः ।
छिन्नद्वैधा यतात्मानः सर्वभूतहिते रताः ॥५- २५॥
labhante brahmanirvāṇam ṛṣayaḥ kṣīṇakalmaṣāḥ chinnadvaidhā yatātmānaḥ sarvabhūtahite ratāḥ 5.25

कामक्रोधवियुक्तानां यतीनां यतचेतसाम् ।
अभितो ब्रह्मनिर्वाणं वर्तते विदितात्मनाम् ॥५- २६॥
kāmakrodhaviyuktānāṃ yatīnāṃ yatacetasām abhito brahmanirvāṇaṃ vartate viditātmanām 5.26

स्पर्शान्कृत्वा बहिर्बाह्यांश्चक्षुश्चैवान्तरे भ्रुवोः ।
प्राणापानौ समौ कृत्वा नासाभ्यन्तरचारिणौ ॥५- २७॥
sparśān kṛtvā bahir bāhyāṃś cakṣuś caivāntare bhruvoḥ prāṇāpānau samau kṛtvā nāsābhyantaracāriṇau 5.27

यतेन्द्रियमनोबुद्धिर्मुनिर्मोक्षपरायणः ।
विगतेच्छाभयक्रोधो यः सदा मुक्त एव सः ॥५- २८॥
yatendriyamanobuddhirmunir mokṣaparāyaṇaḥ vigatecchābhayakrodho yaḥ sadā mukta eva saḥ 5.28

भोक्तारं यज्ञतपसां सर्वलोकमहेश्वरम् ।
सुहृदं सर्वभूतानां ज्ञात्वा मां शान्तिमृच्छति ॥५- २९॥
bhoktāraṃ yajñatapasāṃ sarvalokamaheśvaram suhṛdaṃ sarvabhūtānāṃ jñātvā māṃ śāntim ṛcchati 5.29

Chapter 6 आत्मसंयमयोगः

श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,--'

अनाश्रितः कर्मफलं कार्यं कर्म करोति यः ।
स संन्यासी च योगी च न निरग्निर्न चाक्रियः ॥६- १॥
anāśritaḥ karmaphalaṃ kāryaṃ karma karoti yaḥ sa saṃnyāsī ca yogī ca na niragnir na cākriyaḥ 6.1

यं संन्यासमिति प्राहुर्योगं तं विद्धि पाण्डव ।
न ह्यसंन्यस्तसंकल्पो योगी भवति कश्चन ॥६- २॥
yaṃ saṃnyāsam iti prāhur yogaṃ taṃ viddhi pāṇḍava na hy asaṃnyastasaṃkalpo yogī bhavati kaścana 6.2

आरुरुक्षोर्मुनेर्योगं कर्म कारणमुच्यते ।
योगारूढस्य तस्यैव शमः कारणमुच्यते ॥६- ३॥
ārurukṣor muner yogaṃ karma kāraṇam ucyate yogārūḍhasya tasyaiva śamaḥ kāraṇam ucyate 6.3

यदा हि नेन्द्रियार्थेषु न कर्मस्वनुषज्जते ।
सर्वसंकल्पसंन्यासी योगारूढस्तदोच्यते ॥६- ४॥
yadā hi nendriyārtheṣu na karmasv anuṣajjate sarvasaṃkalpasaṃnyāsī yogārūḍhas tadocyate 6.4

उद्धरेदात्मनात्मानं नात्मानमवसादयेत् ।
आत्मैव ह्यात्मनो बन्धुरात्मैव रिपुरात्मनः ॥६- ५॥
uddhared ātmanātmānaṃ nātmānam avasādayet ātmaiva hy ātmano bandhur ātmaiva ripur ātmanaḥ 6.5

बन्धुरात्मात्मनस्तस्य येनात्मैवात्मना जितः ।
अनात्मनस्तु शत्रुत्वे वर्तेतात्मैव शत्रुवत् ॥६- ६॥
bandhur ātmātmanas tasya yenātmaivātmanā jitaḥ anātmanas tu śatrutve vartetātmaiva śatruvat 6.6

जितात्मनः प्रशान्तस्य परमात्मा समाहितः ।
शीतोष्णसुखदुःखेषु तथा मानापमानयोः ॥६- ७॥
jitātmanaḥ praśāntasya paramātmā samāhitaḥ śītoṣṇasukhaduḥkheṣu tathā mānāpamānayoḥ 6.7

ज्ञानविज्ञानतृप्तात्मा कूटस्थो विजितेन्द्रियः ।
युक्त इत्युच्यते योगी समलोष्टाश्मकाञ्चनः ॥६- ८॥
jñānavijñānatṛptātmā kūṭastho vijitendriyaḥ yukta ity ucyate yogī samaloṣṭāśmakāñcanaḥ 6.8

सुहृन्मित्रार्युदासीनमध्यस्थद्वेष्यबन्धुषु ।
साधुष्वपि च पापेषु समबुद्धिर्विशिष्यते ॥६- ९॥
suhṛnmitrāryudāsīnamadhyasthadveṣyabandhuṣu sādhuṣv api ca pāpeṣu samabuddhir viśiṣyate 6.9

योगी युञ्जीत सततमात्मानं रहसि स्थितः ।
एकाकी यतचित्तात्मा निराशीरपरिग्रहः ॥६- १०॥
yogī yuñjīta satatam ātmānaṃ rahasi sthitaḥ ekākī yatacittātmā nirāśīr aparigrahaḥ 6.10

शुचौ देशे प्रतिष्ठाप्य स्थिरमासनमात्मनः ।
नात्युच्छ्रितं नातिनीचं चैलाजिनकुशोत्तरम् ॥६- ११॥
śucau deśe pratiṣṭhāpya sthiram āsanam ātmanaḥ nātyucchritaṃ nātinīcaṃ cailājinakuśottaram 6.11

तत्रैकाग्रं मनः कृत्वा यतचित्तेन्द्रियक्रियः ।
उपविश्यासने युञ्ज्याद्योगमात्मविशुद्धये ॥६- १२॥
tatraikāgraṃ manaḥ kṛtvā yatacittendriyakriyaḥ upaviśyāsane yuñjyād yogam ātmaviśuddhaye 6.12

समं कायशिरोग्रीवं धारयन्नचलं स्थिरः ।
सम्प्रेक्ष्य नासिकाग्रं स्वं दिशश्चानवलोकयन् ॥६- १३॥
samaṃ kāyaśirogrīvaṃ dhārayann acalaṃ sthiraḥ saṃprekṣya nāsikāgraṃ svaṃ diśaś cānavalokayan 6.13

प्रशान्तात्मा विगतभीर्ब्रह्मचारिव्रते स्थितः ।
मनः संयम्य मच्चित्तो युक्त आसीत मत्परः ॥६- १४॥
praśāntātmā vigatabhīr brahmacārivrate sthitaḥ manaḥ saṃyamya maccitto yukta āsīta matparaḥ 6.14

युञ्जन्नेवं सदात्मानं योगी नियतमानसः ।
शान्तिं निर्वाणपरमां मत्संस्थामधिगच्छति ॥६- १५॥
yuñjann evaṃ sadātmānaṃ yogī niyatamānasaḥ śāntiṃ nirvāṇaparamāṃ matsaṃsthām adhigacchati 6.15

नात्यश्नतस्तु योगोऽस्ति न चैकान्तमनश्नतः ।
न चाति स्वप्नशीलस्य जाग्रतो नैव चार्जुन ॥६- १६॥
nātyaśnatas tu yogosti na caikāntam anaśnataḥ na cātisvapnaśīlasya jāgrato naiva cārjuna 6.16

युक्ताहारविहारस्य युक्तचेष्टस्य कर्मसु ।
युक्तस्वप्नावबोधस्य योगो भवति दुःखहा ॥६- १७॥
yuktāhāravihārasya yuktaceṣṭasya karmasu yuktasvapnāvabodhasya yogo bhavati duḥkhahā 6.17

यदा विनियतं चित्तमात्मन्येवावतिष्ठते ।
निःस्पृहः सर्वकामेभ्यो युक्त इत्युच्यते तदा ॥६- १८॥
yadā viniyataṃ cittam ātmany evāvatiṣṭhate niḥspṛhaḥ sarvakāmebhyo yukta ity ucyate tadā 6.18

यथा दीपो निवातस्थो नेङ्गते सोपमा स्मृता ।
योगिनो यतचित्तस्य युञ्जतो योगमात्मनः ॥६- १९॥
yathā dīpo nivātastho neṅgate sopamā smṛtā yogino yatacittasya yuñjato yogam ātmanaḥ 6.19

यत्रोपरमते चित्तं निरुद्धं योगसेवया ।
यत्र चैवात्मनात्मानं पश्यन्नात्मनि तुष्यति ॥६- २०॥
yatroparamate cittaṃ niruddhaṃ yogasevayā yatra caivātmanātmānaṃ paśyann ātmani tuṣyati 6.20

सुखमात्यन्तिकं यत्तद् बुद्धिग्राह्यमतीन्द्रियम् ।
वेत्ति यत्र न चैवायं स्थितश्चलति तत्त्वतः ॥६- २१॥
sukham ātyantikaṃ yat tad buddhigrāhyam atīndriyam vetti yatra na caivāyaṃ sthitaś calati tattvataḥ 6.21

यं लब्ध्वा चापरं लाभं मन्यते नाधिकं ततः ।
यस्मिन्स्थितो न दुःखेन गुरुणापि विचाल्यते ॥६- २२॥
yaṃ labdhvā cāparaṃ lābhaṃ manyate nādhikaṃ tataḥ yasmin sthito na duḥkhena guruṇāpi vicālyate 6.22

तं विद्याद्दुःखसंयोगवियोगं योगसंज्ञितम् ।
स निश्चयेन योक्तव्यो योगोऽनिर्विण्णचेतसा ॥६- २३॥
taṃ vidyād.h duḥkhasaṃyogaviyogaṃ yogasaṃjñitam sa niścayena yoktavyo yogonirviṇṇacetasā 6.23

संकल्पप्रभवान्कामांस्त्यक्त्वा सर्वानशेषतः ।
मनसैवेन्द्रियग्रामं विनियम्य समन्ततः ॥६- २४॥
saṅkalpaprabhavān kāmāṃs tyaktvā sarvān aśeṣataḥ manasaivendriyagrāmaṃ viniyamya samantataḥ 6.24

शनैः शनैरुपरमेद्बुद्ध्या धृतिगृहीतया ।
आत्मसंस्थं मनः कृत्वा न किंचिदपि चिन्तयेत् ॥६- २५॥
śanaiḥ śanair uparamed buddhyā dhṛtigṛhītayā ātmasaṃsthaṃ manaḥ kṛtvā na kiṃcid api cintayet 6.25

यतो यतो निश्चरति मनश्चञ्चलमस्थिरम् ।
ततस्ततो नियम्यैतदात्मन्येव वशं नयेत् ॥६- २६॥
yato yato niścarati manaś cañcalam asthiram tatas tato niyamyaitad ātmany eva vaśaṃ nayet 6.26

प्रशान्तमनसं ह्येनं योगिनं सुखमुत्तमम् ।
उपैति शान्तरजसं ब्रह्मभूतमकल्मषम् ॥६- २७॥
praśāntamanasaṃ hy enaṃ yoginaṃ sukham uttamam upaiti śāntarajasaṃ brahmabhūtam akalmaṣam 6.27

युञ्जन्नेवं सदात्मानं योगी विगतकल्मषः ।
सुखेन ब्रह्मसंस्पर्शमत्यन्तं सुखमश्नुते ॥६- २८॥
yuñjann evaṃ sadātmānaṃ yogī vigatakalmaṣaḥ sukhena brahmasaṃsparśam atyantaṃ sukham aśnute 6.28

सर्वभूतस्थमात्मानं सर्वभूतानि चात्मनि ।
ईक्षते योगयुक्तात्मा सर्वत्र समदर्शनः ॥६- २९॥
sarvabhūtastham ātmānaṃ sarvabhūtāni cātmani īkṣate yogayuktātmā sarvatra samadarśanaḥ 6.29

Regardless of fruit of action, he that performs the actions which should be performed, is a renouncer and devotee, and not one who discards the (sacrificial) fire, nor one that abstains from action. 1 That which has been called renunciation, know that, O son of Pandu, to be devotion, since nobody can be a devotee who has not renounced (all) resolves. 2 To the sage desirous of rising to devotion, action is said to be the means; and when he has risen to devotion, cessation of action is said to be the means. When one is no longer attached to the objects of the senses, nor to actions, and when one renounces all resolves, then is. One said to have risen to devotion. One should raise (his ) self by self; one should not degrade (his) self; for one's own self is one's friend, and one's own self is one's enemy. 3 To him (only) who has subjugated his self by his self is self a friend. But to him who has not subjugated his self, his self behaves inimically like an enemy. The soul of one who has subjugated his self and who is in the enjoyment of tranquillity, is steadily fixed (on itself) amid cold and heat, pleasure and pain, and also honour and dishonour. That ascetic is said to be devoted whose mind is satisfied with knowledge and experience, who hath no affection, who hath subjugated his senses, and to whom a sod, a stone and gold are alike. He, who views equally well-wishers, friends, foes, strangers that are indifferent to him, those who take part with both sides, those who are objects of aversion, those who are related (to him), those who are good, and those who are wicked, is distinguished (above all others). A devotee should always fix his mind on contemplation, remaining in a secluded place alone, restraining both mind and body, without expectations (of any kind), and without concern (with anything). 4 Erecting his seat immovably on a clean spot, not too high nor too low, and spreading over it a piece of cloth, a deer-skin, or blades of Kusa grass, and there seated on that seat, with mind fixed on one object, and restraining the functions of the heart and the senses, one should practise contemplation for the purification of self. Holding body, head, and neck p. 68 even, unmoved and steady, and casting his glance on the tip of his nose, and without looking about in any of the different directions, with mind in tranquillity, freed from fear, observant of the practices of Brahmacharins, restraining the mind, with heart fixed on me, the devotee should sit down, regarding me as the object of his attainment. Thus applying his soul constantly, the devotee whose heart is restrained, attains to that tranquillity which culminates in final absorption and assimilation with me. Devotion is not one's, O Arjuna, who eateth much, nor one's who doth not eat at all; nor one's who is addicted to too much sleep, nor one's who is always awake, devotion that is destructive of misery is his who is temperate in food and amusements, who duly exerts himself temperately in all his works, and who is temperate in sleep and vigils. When one's heart, properly restrained, is fixed on one's own self, then, indifferent to all objects of desire, he is one called a devotee. 1 As a lamp in a windless spot doth not flicker, even that is the resemblance declared of a devotee whose heart hath been restrained and who applieth his self to abstraction. That (condition) in which the mind, restrained by practice of abstraction, taketh rest, in which beholding self by self, one is gratified within self; in which one experienceth that highest felicity which is beyond the (sphere of the) senses and which the understanding (only) can grasp, and fixed on which one never swerveth from the truth; acquiring which one regards no other acquisition greater than it, and abiding in which one is never moved by even the heaviest sorrow; that (Condition) should be known to be what is called devotion in which there is a severance of connection with pain. That devotion should be practised with perseverance and with an undesponding heart. 2 Renouncing all desires without exception that are born of resolves, restraining the group of the senses on all sides by mind alone, one should, by slow degrees, become quiescent (aided) by (his) understanding controlled by patience, and then directing his mind to self should think of nothing. 3 Wheresoever the mind, which is (by nature) restless and unsteady, may run, restraining it from those, one should direct it to self alone. Indeed, unto such a devotee whose mind is in tranquillity, whose passions have been suppressed, who hath become one with Brahma and who is free from sin, the highest felicity cometh (of his own accord). Thus applying his soul constantly (to abstraction), the devotee, freed from sin, easily obtaineth that highest happiness, viz., with Brahma. He who hath devoted his self to abstraction casting an equal eye everywhere, beholdeth his self in all creatures and all creatures in his self.

यो मां पश्यति सर्वत्र सर्वं च मयि पश्यति ।
तस्याहं न प्रणश्यामि स च मे न प्रणश्यति ॥६- ३०॥
yo māṃ paśyati sarvatra sarvaṃ ca mayi paśyati tasyāhaṃ na praṇaśyāmi sa ca me na praṇaśyati 6.30

Unto him who beholdeth me in everything and beholdeth everything in me. I am never lost and he also is never lost to me. 1

सर्वभूतस्थितं यो मां भजत्येकत्वमास्थितः ।
सर्वथा वर्तमानोऽपि स योगी मयि वर्तते ॥६- ३१॥
sarvabhūtasthitaṃ yo māṃ bhajaty ekatvam āsthitaḥ sarvathā vartamānopi sa yogī mayi vartate 6.31

He who worshippeth me as abiding in all creatures, holding yet that all is one, is a devotee, and whatever mode of life he may lead, he liveth in me.

आत्मौपम्येन सर्वत्र समं पश्यति योऽर्जुन ।
सुखं वा यदि वा दुःखं स योगी परमो मतः ॥६- ३२॥
ātmaupamyena sarvatra samaṃ paśyati yorjuna sukhaṃ vā yadi vā duḥkhaṃ sa yogī paramo mataḥ 6.32

That devotee, O Arjuna, who casteth an equal eye everywhere, regarding all things as his own self and the happiness and misery of others as his own, is deemed to be the best

Section 21
अर्जुन उवाच
arjuna uvāca

Arjuna said,

योऽयं योगस्त्वया प्रोक्तः साम्येन मधुसूदन ।
एतस्याहं न पश्यामि चञ्चलत्वात्स्थितिं स्थिराम् ॥६- ३३॥
yoyaṃ yogas tvayā proktaḥ sāmyena madhusūdana etasyāhaṃ na paśyāmi cañcalatvāt sthitiṃ sthirām 6.33

This devotion by means of equanimity which thou hast declared, O slayer of Madhu,--on account of restlessness of the mind I do not see its stable presence.

चञ्चलं हि मनः कृष्ण प्रमाथि बलवद्दृढम् ।
तस्याहं निग्रहं मन्ये वायोरिव सुदुष्करम् ॥६- ३४॥
cañcalaṃ hi manaḥ kṛṣṇa pramāthi balavad dṛḍham tasyāhaṃ nigrahaṃ manye vāyor iva suduṣkaram 6.34

O Krishna, the mind is restless, boisterous, perverse, and obstinate. Its restraint I regard to be as difficult of accomplishment as the restraint of the wind.

Section 22
श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,

असंशयं महाबाहो मनो दुर्निग्रहं चलम् ।
अभ्यासेन तु कौन्तेय वैराग्येण च गृह्यते ॥६- ३५॥
asañśayaṃ mahābāho mano durnigrahaṃ calam abhyāsena tu kaunteya vairāgyeṇa ca gṛhyate 6.35

'Without doubt, O thou of mighty arms the mind is difficult of subjugation and is restless. With practice, however, O son of Kunti, and with the abandonment of desire, it can be controlled.

असंयतात्मना योगो दुष्प्राप इति मे मतिः ।
वश्यात्मना तु यतता शक्योऽवाप्तुमुपायतः ॥६- ३६॥
asaṃyatātmanā yogo duṣprāpa iti me matiḥ vaśyātmanā tu yatatā śakyovāptum upāyataḥ 6.36

It is my belief that by him whose mind is not restrained, devotion is difficult of acquisition. But by one whose mind is restrained and who is assiduous, it is capable of acquisition with the aid of means.'

Section 23
अर्जुन उवाच
arjuna uvāca

Arjuna said,

अयतिः श्रद्धयोपेतो योगाच्चलितमानसः ।
अप्राप्य योगसंसिद्धिं कां गतिं कृष्ण गच्छति ॥६- ३७॥
ayatiḥ śraddhayopeto yogāc calitamānasaḥ aprāpya yogasaṃsiddhiṃ kāṃ gatiṃ kṛṣṇa gacchati 6.37

Without assiduity, though endued with faith, and with mind shaken off from devotion, what is the end of him, O Krishna, who hath not earned success in devotion?

कच्चिन्नोभयविभ्रष्टश्छिन्नाभ्रमिव नश्यति ।
अप्रतिष्ठो महाबाहो विमूढो ब्रह्मणः पथि ॥६- ३८॥
kacchin nobhayavibhraṣṭaś chinnābhram iva naśyati apratiṣṭho mahābāho vimūḍho brahmaṇaḥ pathi 6.38

Fallen off from both is he lost like a separated cloud or not, being as he is without refuge, O thou of mighty arms, and deluded on the path leading to Brahma?

एतन्मे संशयं कृष्ण छेत्तुमर्हस्यशेषतः ।
त्वदन्यः संशयस्यास्य छेत्ता न ह्युपपद्यते ॥६- ३९॥
etan me saṃśayaṃ kṛṣṇa chettum arhasy aśeṣataḥ tvadanyaḥ saṃśayasyāsya chettā na hy upapadyate 6.39

This my doubt, O Krishna, it behoveth thee to remove without leaving anything. Besides thee, no dispeller of this doubt is to be had.

Section 24
श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,

पार्थ नैवेह नामुत्र विनाशस्तस्य विद्यते ।
न हि कल्याणकृत्कश्चिद्दुर्गतिं तात गच्छति ॥६- ४०॥
pārtha naiveha nāmutra vināśas tasya vidyate na hi kalyāṇakṛt kaścid durgatiṃ tāta gacchati 6.40

O son of Pritha, neither here, nor hereafter, doth ruin exist for him, since none, O sire, who performs good (acts) comes by an evil end.

प्राप्य पुण्यकृतां लोकानुषित्वा शाश्वतीः समाः ।
शुचीनां श्रीमतां गेहे योगभ्रष्टोऽभिजायते ॥६- ४१॥
prāpya puṇyakṛtāṃ lokān uṣitvā śāśvatīḥ samāḥ śucīnāṃ śrīmatāṃ gehe yogabhraṣṭobhijāyate 6.41

Attaining to the regions reserved for those that perform meritorious acts and living there for many many years, he that hath fallen off from devotion taketh birth in the abode of those that art pious and endued with prosperity,

अथवा योगिनामेव कुले भवति धीमताम् ।
एतद्धि दुर्लभतरं लोके जन्म यदीदृशम् ॥६- ४२॥
athavā yoginām eva kule bhavati dhīmatām etad dhi durlabhataraṃ loke janma yad īdṛśam 6.42

or, he is born even in the family of devotees endued with intelligence. Indeed, a birth such as this is more difficult of acquisition in this world.

तत्र तं बुद्धिसंयोगं लभते पौर्वदेहिकम् ।
यतते च ततो भूयः संसिद्धौ कुरुनन्दन ॥६- ४३॥
tatra taṃ buddhisaṃyogaṃ labhate paurvadehikam yatate ca tato bhūyaḥ saṃsiddhau kurunandana 6.43

There in those births he obtaineth contact with that Brahmic knowledge which was his in his former life; and from that point he striveth again, O descendant of Kuru, towards perfection.

पूर्वाभ्यासेन तेनैव ह्रियते ह्यवशोऽपि सः ।
जिज्ञासुरपि योगस्य शब्दब्रह्मातिवर्तते ॥६- ४४॥
pūrvābhyāsena tenaiva hriyate hy avaśopi saḥ jijñāsur api yogasya śabdabrahmātivartate 6.44

And although unwilling, he still worketh on in consequence of that same former practice of his. Even one that enquireth of devotion riseth above (the fruits of) the Divine Word.-

प्रयत्नाद्यतमानस्तु योगी संशुद्धकिल्बिषः ।
अनेकजन्मसंसिद्धस्ततो याति परां गतिम् ॥६- ४५॥
prayatnād yatamānas tu yogī saṃśuddhakilbiṣaḥ anekajanmasaṃsiddhas tato yāti parāṃ gatim 6.45

5 Striving with great efforts, the devotee, cleaned of all his sins, attaineth to perfection after many births, and then reacheth the supreme goal.

तपस्विभ्योऽधिको योगी ज्ञानिभ्योऽपि मतोऽधिकः ।
कर्मिभ्यश्चाधिको योगी तस्माद्योगी भवार्जुन ॥६- ४६॥
tapasvibhyodhiko yogī jñānibhyopi matodhikaḥ karmibhyaś cādhiko yogī tasmād yogī bhavārjuna 6.46

The devotee is superior to ascetics engaged in austerities; he is esteemed to be superior to even the man of knowledge. The devotee is superior to those that are engaged in action. Therefore, become a devotee, O Arjuna.

योगिनामपि सर्वेषां मद्गतेनान्तरात्मना ।
श्रद्धावान् भजते यो मां स मे युक्ततमो मतः ॥६- ४७॥
yoginām api sarveṣāṃ madgatenāntarātmanā śraddhāvān bhajate yo māṃ sa me yuktatamo mataḥ 6.47

Even amongst all the devotees, he who, full of faith and with inner self resting on me, worshippeth me, is regarded by me to be the most devout.

Chapter 7 ज्ञानविज्ञानयोगः

श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,

मय्यासक्तमनाः पार्थ योगं युञ्जन्मदाश्रयः ।
असंशयं समग्रं मां यथा ज्ञास्यसि तच्छृणु ॥७- १॥
mayy āsaktamanāḥ pārtha yogaṃ yuñjan madāśrayaḥ asaṃśayaṃ samagraṃ māṃ yathā jñāsyasi tac chṛṇu 7.1

ज्ञानं तेऽहं सविज्ञानमिदं वक्ष्याम्यशेषतः ।
यज्ज्ञात्वा नेह भूयोऽन्यज्ज्ञातव्यमवशिष्यते ॥७- २॥
jñānaṃ tehaṃ savijñānam idaṃ vakṣyāmy aśeṣataḥ yaj jñātvā neha bhūyo.anyaj jñātavyam avaśiṣyate 7.2

मनुष्याणां सहस्रेषु कश्चिद्यतति सिद्धये ।
यततामपि सिद्धानां कश्चिन्मां वेत्ति तत्त्वतः ॥७- ३॥
manuṣyāṇāṃ sahasreṣu kaścid yatati siddhaye yatatām api siddhānāṃ kaścin māṃ vetti tattvataḥ 7.3

भूमिरापोऽनलो वायुः खं मनो बुद्धिरेव च ।
अहंकार इतीयं मे भिन्ना प्रकृतिरष्टधा ॥७- ४॥
bhūmir āponalo vāyuḥ khaṃ mano buddhir eva ca ahaṃkāra itīyaṃ me bhinnā prakṛtir aṣṭadhā 7.4

अपरेयमितस्त्वन्यां प्रकृतिं विद्धि मे पराम् ।
जीवभूतां महाबाहो ययेदं धार्यते जगत् ॥७- ५॥
apareyam itas tvanyāṃ prakṛtiṃ viddhi me parām jīvabhūtāṃ mahābāho yayedaṃ dhāryate jagat 7.5

एतद्योनीनि भूतानि सर्वाणीत्युपधारय ।
अहं कृत्स्नस्य जगतः प्रभवः प्रलयस्तथा ॥७- ६॥
etadyonīni bhūtāni sarvāṇīty upadhāraya ahaṃ kṛtsnasya jagataḥ prabhavaḥ pralayas tathā 7.6

मत्तः परतरं नान्यत्किंचिदस्ति धनंजय ।
मयि सर्वमिदं प्रोतं सूत्रे मणिगणा इव ॥७- ७॥
mattaḥ parataraṃ nānyat kiṃcid asti dhanaṃjaya mayi sarvam idaṃ protaṃ sūtre maṇigaṇā iva 7.7

रसोऽहमप्सु कौन्तेय प्रभास्मि शशिसूर्ययोः ।
प्रणवः सर्ववेदेषु शब्दः खे पौरुषं नृषु ॥७- ८॥
raso.aham apsu kaunteya prabhāsmi śaśisūryayoḥ praṇavaḥ sarvavedeṣu śabdaḥ khe pauruṣaṃ nṛṣu 7.8

पुण्यो गन्धः पृथिव्यां च तेजश्चास्मि विभावसौ ।
जीवनं सर्वभूतेषु तपश्चास्मि तपस्विषु ॥७- ९॥
puṇyo gandhaḥ pṛthivyāṃ ca tejaś cāsmi vibhāvasau jīvanaṃ sarvabhūteṣu tapaś cāsmi tapasviṣu 7.9

बीजं मां सर्वभूतानां विद्धि पार्थ सनातनम् ।
बुद्धिर्बुद्धिमतामस्मि तेजस्तेजस्विनामहम् ॥७- १०॥
bījaṃ māṃ sarvabhūtānāṃ viddhi pārtha sanātanam buddhir buddhimatām asmi tejas tejasvinām aham 7.10

बलं बलवतां चाहं कामरागविवर्जितम् ।
धर्माविरुद्धो भूतेषु कामोऽस्मि भरतर्षभ ॥७- ११॥
balaṃ balavatāṃ cāhaṃ kāmarāgavivarjitam dharmāviruddho bhūteṣu kāmo.asmi bharatarṣabha 7.11

ये चैव सात्त्विका भावा राजसास्तामसाश्च ये ।
मत्त एवेति तान्विद्धि न त्वहं तेषु ते मयि ॥७- १२॥
ye caiva sātvikā bhāvā rājasās tāmasāś ca ye matta eveti tān viddhi na tv ahaṃ teṣu te mayi 7.12

त्रिभिर्गुणमयैर्भावैरेभिः सर्वमिदं जगत् ।
मोहितं नाभिजानाति मामेभ्यः परमव्ययम् ॥७- १३॥
tribhir guṇamayair bhāvair ebhiḥ sarvam idaṃ jagat mohitaṃ nābhijānāti mām ebhyaḥ param avyayam 7.13

दैवी ह्येषा गुणमयी मम माया दुरत्यया ।
मामेव ये प्रपद्यन्ते मायामेतां तरन्ति ते ॥७- १४॥
daivī hy eṣā guṇamayī mama māyā duratyayā mām eva ye prapadyante māyām etāṃ taranti te 7.14

न मां दुष्कृतिनो मूढाः प्रपद्यन्ते नराधमाः ।
माययापहृतज्ञाना आसुरं भावमाश्रिताः ॥७- १५॥
na māṃ duṣkṛtino mūḍhāḥ prapadyante narādhamāḥ māyayāpahṛtajñānā āsuraṃ bhāvam āśritāḥ 7.15

चतुर्विधा भजन्ते मां जनाः सुकृतिनोऽर्जुन ।
आर्तो जिज्ञासुरर्थार्थी ज्ञानी च भरतर्षभ ॥७- १६॥
caturvidhā bhajante māṃ janāḥ sukṛtinorjuna ārto jijñāsur arthārthī jñānī ca bharatarṣabha 7.16

तेषां ज्ञानी नित्ययुक्त एकभक्तिर्विशिष्यते ।
प्रियो हि ज्ञानिनोऽत्यर्थमहं स च मम प्रियः ॥७- १७॥
teṣāṃ jñānī nityayukta ekabhaktir viśiṣyate priyo hi jñāninotyartham ahaṃ sa ca mama priyaḥ 7.17

उदाराः सर्व एवैते ज्ञानी त्वात्मैव मे मतम् ।
आस्थितः स हि युक्तात्मा मामेवानुत्तमां गतिम् ॥७- १८॥
udārāḥ sarva evaite jñānī tv ātmaiva me matam āsthitaḥ sa hi yuktātmā mām evānuttamāṃ gatim 7.18

बहूनां जन्मनामन्ते ज्ञानवान्मां प्रपद्यते ।
वासुदेवः सर्वमिति स महात्मा सुदुर्लभः ॥७- १९॥
bahūnāṃ janmanām ante jñānavān māṃ prapadyate vāsudevaḥ sarvam iti sa mahātmā sudurlabhaḥ 7.19

कामैस्तैस्तैर्हृतज्ञानाः प्रपद्यन्तेऽन्यदेवताः ।
तं तं नियममास्थाय प्रकृत्या नियताः स्वया ॥७- २०॥
kāmais tais tair hṛtajñānāḥ prapadyantenyadevatāḥ taṃ taṃ niyamam āsthāya prakṛtyā niyatāḥ svayā 7.20

यो यो यां यां तनुं भक्तः श्रद्धयार्चितुमिच्छति ।
तस्य तस्याचलां श्रद्धां तामेव विदधाम्यहम् ॥७- २१॥
yo yo yāṃ yāṃ tanuṃ bhaktaḥ śraddhayārcitumicchati tasya tasyācalāṃ śraddhāṃ tām eva vidadhāmy aham 7.21

स तया श्रद्धया युक्तस्तस्याराधनमीहते ।
लभते च ततः कामान्मयैव विहितान्हि तान् ॥७- २२॥
sa tayā śraddhayā yuktas tasyārādhanam īhate labhate ca tataḥ kāmān mayaivaḥ vihitān hi tān 7.22

अन्तवत्तु फलं तेषां तद्भवत्यल्पमेधसाम् ।
देवान्देवयजो यान्ति मद्भक्ता यान्ति मामपि ॥७- २३॥
antavat tu phalaṃ teṣāṃ tad bhavaty alpamedhasām devān devayajo yānti madbhaktā yānti mām api 7.23

अव्यक्तं व्यक्तिमापन्नं मन्यन्ते मामबुद्धयः ।
परं भावमजानन्तो ममाव्ययमनुत्तमम् ॥७- २४॥
avyaktaṃ vyaktim āpannaṃ manyante māmabuddhayaḥ paraṃ bhāvam ajānanto mamāvyayam anuttamam 7.24

नाहं प्रकाशः सर्वस्य योगमायासमावृतः ।
मूढोऽयं नाभिजानाति लोको मामजमव्ययम् ॥७- २५॥
nāhaṃ prakāśaḥ sarvasya yogamāyāsamāvṛtaḥ mūḍhoyaṃ nābhijānāti loko mām ajam avyayam 7.25

वेदाहं समतीतानि वर्तमानानि चार्जुन ।
भविष्याणि च भूतानि मां तु वेद न कश्चन ॥७- २६॥
vedāhaṃ samatītāni vartamānāni cārjuna bhaviṣyāṇi ca bhūtāni māṃ tu veda na kaścana 7.26

इच्छाद्वेषसमुत्थेन द्वन्द्वमोहेन भारत ।
सर्वभूतानि संमोहं सर्गे यान्ति परन्तप ॥७- २७॥
icchādveṣasamutthena dvandvamohena bhārata sarvabhūtāni saṃmohaṃ sarge yānti paraṃtapa 7.27

येषां त्वन्तगतं पापं जनानां पुण्यकर्मणाम् ।
ते द्वन्द्वमोहनिर्मुक्ता भजन्ते मां दृढव्रताः ॥७- २८॥
yeṣāṃ tv antagataṃ pāpaṃ janānāṃ puṇyakarmaṇām te dvandvamohanirmuktā bhajante māṃ dṛḍhavratāḥ 7.28

जरामरणमोक्षाय मामाश्रित्य यतन्ति ये ।
ते ब्रह्म तद्विदुः कृत्स्नमध्यात्मं कर्म चाखिलम् ॥७- २९॥
jarāmaraṇamokṣāya mām āśritya yatanti ye te brahma tad viduḥ kṛtsnam adhyātmaṃ karmacākhilam 7.29

साधिभूताधिदैवं मां साधियज्ञं च ये विदुः ।
प्रयाणकालेऽपि च मां ते विदुर्युक्तचेतसः ॥७- ३०॥
sādhibhūtādhidaivaṃ māṃ sādhiyajñaṃ ca ye viduḥ prayāṇakālepi ca māṃ te vidur yuktacetasaḥ 7.30

Listen, O son of Pritha, how, without doubt, thou mayst know me fully, fixing thy mind on me, practising devotion, and taking refuge in me. I will now, without leaving anything speak to thee about knowledge and experience, knowing which there would be left nothing in this world (for thee) to know. One among thousands of men striveth for perfection. Of those even that are assiduous and have attained to perfection, only some one knoweth me truly. 1 Earth, water, fire, air, space, mind, also understanding, and consciousness,--thus hath my nature been divided eight-fold. This is a lower (form of my) nature. Different from this, know there is a higher (form of my) nature which is animate, O thou of mighty arms, and by which this universe is held. 2 Know that all creatures have these for their source. I am the source of evolution and also of the dissolution of the entire universe. There is nothing else, O Dhananjaya, that is higher than myself. Upon me is all this like a row of pearls on a string. Taste I am in the waters, O soil of Kunti, (and) I am the splendour of both the moon and the sun, I am the Om in all the Vedas, the sound in space, and the manliness in men. I am the fragrant odour in earth, the splendour in fire, the life in all (living) creatures, and penance in ascetics. Know me, O son of Pritha, to be the eternal seed of all beings. I am the intelligence of all creatures endued with intelligence, the glory of all glorious objects. I am also the strength of all that are endued with strength, (myself) freed from desire and thirst, and, O bull of Bharata's race, am the desire, consistent with duty, in all creatures. 3 And all existences which are of the quality of goodness, and which are of the quality of passion and quality of darkness, know that they are, indeed, from me. I am, however, not in them, but they are in me. This entire universe, deluded by these three entities consisting of (these) three qualities knoweth not me that am beyond them and undecaying; since this illusion of mine, depending on the (three) qualities, is exceedingly marvellous and highly difficult of being transcended. They that resort to me alone cross this illusion. 1 Doers of evil, ignorant men, the worst of their species, robbed of their knowledge by (my) illusion and wedded to the state of demons, do not resort to me. Four classes of doers of good deeds worship me, O Arjuna, viz., he that is distressed, that is possessed of knowledge, being always devoted and having his faith in only One, is superior to the rest, for unto the man of knowledge I am dear above everything, and he also is dear to me. All these are noble. But the man of knowledge is regarded (by me) to be my very self, since he, with soul fixed on abstraction, taketh refuge in me as the highest goal. At the end of many births, the man possessed of knowledge attaineth to me, (thinking) that Vasudeva is all this. Such a high-souled person, however, is exceedingly rare. They who have been robbed of knowledge by desire, resort to their godheads, observant of diverse regulations and controlled by their own nature. 2 Whatever form, (of godhead or myself) any worshipper desireth to worship with faith, that faith of his unto that (form) I render steady. Endued with that faith, he payeth his adorations to that (form), and obtaineth from that all his desire, since all those are ordained by me. 3 The fruits, however, of those persons endued with little intelligence are perishable. They that worship the divinities, go to the divinities, (while) they that worship me come even to me. 4 They that have no discernment, regard me who am (really) unmanifest to have become manifest, because they do not know the transcendent and undecaying state of mine than which there is nothing higher. 5 Shrouded by the illusion of my inconceivable power, I am not manifest to all. This deluded world knoweth not me that I am unborn and undecaying. I know, O Arjuna, all things that have been past, and all things that are present, and all things that are to be. But there is nobody that knoweth me. All creatures, O chastiser of foes, are deluded at the time of their birth by the delusion, O Bharata, of pairs of opposites arising from desire and aversion. But those persons of meritorious deeds whose sins have attained their end, being freed from the delusion of pairs of opposites, worship me, firm in their vow (of that worship). Those who, taking refuge in me, strive for release from decay and death, know Brahman, the entire Adhyatma, and action. 1 And they who know me with the Adhibhuta, the Adhidaiva, and the Adhiyajna, having minds fixed on abstraction, know me at the time of their departure (from this world)

Section 25

Chapter 8 अक्षरब्रह्मयोगः

अर्जुन उवाच
arjuna uvāca

Arjuna said,

किं तद्ब्रह्म किमध्यात्मं किं कर्म पुरुषोत्तम ।
अधिभूतं च किं प्रोक्तमधिदैवं किमुच्यते ॥८- १॥
kiṃ tad brahma kim adhyātmaṃ kiṃ karma puruṣottama adhibhūtaṃ ca kiṃ proktam adhidaivaṃ kim ucyate 8.1

What is that Brahman, what is Adhyatma, what is action, O best of male beings? What also has been said to be Adhibhuta, and what is called Adhidaiva?

अधियज्ञः कथं कोऽत्र देहेऽस्मिन्मधुसूदन ।
प्रयाणकाले च कथं ज्ञेयोऽसि नियतात्मभिः ॥८- २॥
adhiyajñaḥ kathaṃ kotra dehesmin madhusūdana prayāṇakāle ca kathaṃ jñeyosi niyatātmabhiḥ 8.2

Who is here Adhiyajna, and how, in this body, O slayer of Madhu? And how at the time of departure art thou to be known by those that have restrained their self'?--

Section 26
श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,

अक्षरं ब्रह्म परमं स्वभावोऽध्यात्ममुच्यते ।
भूतभावोद्भवकरो विसर्गः कर्मसंज्ञितः ॥८- ३॥
akṣaraṃ brahma paramaṃ svabhāvodhyātmam ucyate bhūtabhāvodbhavakaro visargaḥ karmasaṃjñitaḥ 8.3

अधिभूतं क्षरो भावः पुरुषश्चाधिदैवतम् ।
अधियज्ञोऽहमेवात्र देहे देहभृतां वर ॥८- ४॥
adhibhūtaṃ kṣaro bhāvaḥ puruṣaś cādhidaivatam adhiyajñoham evātra dehe dehabhṛtāṃ vara 8.4

अन्तकाले च मामेव स्मरन्मुक्त्वा कलेवरम् ।
यः प्रयाति स मद्भावं याति नास्त्यत्र संशयः ॥८- ५॥
antakāle ca mām eva smaran muktvā kalevaram yaḥ prayāti sa madbhāvaṃ yāti nāsty atra saṃśayaḥ 8.5

यं यं वापि स्मरन्भावं त्यजत्यन्ते कलेवरम् ।
तं तमेवैति कौन्तेय सदा तद्भावभावितः ॥८- ६॥
yaṃ yaṃ vāpi smaran bhāvaṃ tyajaty ante kalevaram taṃ tam evaiti kaunteya sadā tadbhāvabhāvitaḥ 8.6

तस्मात्सर्वेषु कालेषु मामनुस्मर युध्य च ।
मय्यर्पितमनोबुद्धिर्मामेवैष्यस्यसंnशयम् ॥८- ७॥
tasmāt sarveṣu kāleṣu mām anusmara yudhya ca mayy arpitamanobuddhir mām evaiṣyasy asaṃśayaḥ 8.7

अभ्यासयोगयुक्तेन चेतसा नान्यगामिना ।
परमं पुरुषं दिव्यं याति पार्थानुचिन्तयन् ॥८- ८॥
abhyāsayogayuktena cetasā nānyagāminā paramaṃ puruṣaṃ divyaṃ yāti pārthānucintayan 8.8

कविं पुराणमनुशासितार- : मणोरणीयांसमनुस्मरेद्यः ।
सर्वस्य धातारमचिन्त्यरूप : मादित्यवर्णं तमसः परस्तात् ॥८- ९॥
kaviṃ purāṇam anuśāsitāraṃ aṇor aṇīyāṃsam anusmared yaḥ sarvasya dhātāram acintyarūpaṃ ādityavarṇaṃ tamasaḥ parastāt 8.9

प्रयाणकाले मनसाचलेन : भक्त्या युक्तो योगबलेन चैव ।
भ्रुवोर्मध्ये प्राणमावेश्य सम्यक् : स तं परं पुरुषमुपैति दिव्यम् ॥८- १०॥
prayāṇakāle manasācalena bhaktyā yukto yogabalena caiva bhruvor madhye prāṇam āveśya samyak sa taṃ paraṃ puruṣam upaiti divyam 8.10

यदक्षरं वेदविदो वदन्ति : विशन्ति यद्यतयो वीतरागाः ।
यदिच्छन्तो ब्रह्मचर्यं चरन्ति : तत्ते पदं संग्रहेण प्रवक्ष्ये ॥८- ११॥
yad akṣaraṃ vedavido vadanti viśanti yad yatayo vītarāgāḥ yad icchanto brahmacaryaṃ caranti tat te padaṃ saṃgraheṇa pravakṣye 8.11

सर्वद्वाराणि संयम्य मनो हृदि निरुध्य च ।
मूर्ध्न्याधायात्मनः प्राणमास्थितो योगधारणाम् ॥८- १२॥
sarvadvārāṇi saṃyamya mano hṛdi nirudhya ca mūrdhny ādhāyātmanaḥ prāṇam āsthito yogadhāraṇām 8.12

ओमित्येकाक्षरं ब्रह्म व्याहरन्मामनुस्मरन् ।
यः प्रयाति त्यजन्देहं स याति परमां गतिम् ॥८- १३॥
om ity ekākṣaraṃ brahma vyāharan mām anusmaran yaḥ prayāti tyajan dehaṃ sa yāti paramāṃ gatim 8.13

अनन्यचेताः सततं यो मां स्मरति नित्यशः ।
तस्याहं सुलभः पार्थ नित्ययुक्तस्य योगिनः ॥८- १४॥
ananyacetāḥ satataṃ yo māṃ smarati nityaśaḥ tasyāhaṃ sulabhaḥ pārtha nityayuktasya yoginaḥ 8.14

मामुपेत्य पुनर्जन्म दुःखालयमशाश्वतम् ।
नाप्नुवन्ति महात्मानः संसिद्धिं परमां गताः ॥८- १५॥
mām upetya punarjanma duḥkhālayam aśāśvatam nāpnuvanti mahātmānaḥ saṃsiddhiṃ paramāṃ gatāḥ 8.15

आब्रह्मभुवनाल्लोकाः पुनरावर्तिनोऽर्जुन ।
मामुपेत्य तु कौन्तेय पुनर्जन्म न विद्यते ॥८- १६॥
ā brahmabhuvanāl lokāḥ punarāvartinorjuna mām upetya tu kaunteya punarjanma na vidyate 8.16

सहस्रयुगपर्यन्तमहर्यद्ब्रह्मणो विदुः ।
रात्रिं युगसहस्रान्तां तेऽहोरात्रविदो जनाः ॥८- १७॥
sahasrayugaparyantam ahar yad brahmaṇo viduḥ rātriṃ yugasahasrāntāṃ te.ahorātravido janāḥ 8.17

अव्यक्ताद्व्यक्तयः सर्वाः प्रभवन्त्यहरागमे ।
रात्र्यागमे प्रलीयन्ते तत्रैवाव्यक्तसंज्ञके ॥८- १८॥
avyaktād vyaktayaḥ sarvāḥ prabhavanty aharāgame rātryāgame pralīyante tatraivāvyaktasaṃjñake 8.18

भूतग्रामः स एवायं भूत्वा भूत्वा प्रलीयते ।
रात्र्यागमेऽवशः पार्थ प्रभवत्यहरागमे ॥८- १९॥
bhūtagrāmaḥ sa evāyaṃ bhūtvā bhūtvā pralīyate rātryāgamevaśaḥ pārtha prabhavaty aharāgame 8.19

परस्तस्मात्तु भावोऽन्योऽव्यक्तोऽव्यक्तात्सनातनः ।
यः स सर्वेषु भूतेषु नश्यत्सु न विनश्यति ॥८- २०॥
paras tasmāt tu bhāvonyovyaktovyaktāt sanātanaḥ yaḥ sa sarveṣu bhūteṣu naśyatsu na vinaśyati 8.20

अव्यक्तोऽक्षर इत्युक्तस्तमाहुः परमां गतिम् ।
यं प्राप्य न निवर्तन्ते तद्धाम परमं मम ॥८- २१॥
avyaktokṣara ity uktas tam āhuḥ paramāṃ gatim yaṃ prāpya na nivartante tad dhāma paramaṃ mama 8.21

पुरुषः स परः पार्थ भक्त्या लभ्यस्त्वनन्यया ।
यस्यान्तःस्थानि भूतानि येन सर्वमिदं ततम् ॥८- २२॥
puruṣaḥ sa paraḥ pārtha bhaktyā labhyas tv ananyayā yasyāntaḥsthāni bhūtāni yena sarvam idaṃ tatam 8.22

यत्र काले त्वनावृत्तिमावृत्तिं चैव योगिनः ।
प्रयाता यान्ति तं कालं वक्ष्यामि भरतर्षभ ॥८- २३॥
yatra kāle tv anāvṛttim āvṛttiṃ caiva yoginaḥ prayātā yānti taṃ kālaṃ vakṣyāmi bharatarṣabha 8.23

अग्निर्ज्योतिरहः शुक्लः षण्मासा उत्तरायणम् ।
तत्र प्रयाता गच्छन्ति ब्रह्म ब्रह्मविदो जनाः ॥८- २४॥
agnir jotir ahaḥ śuklaḥ ṣaṇmāsā uttarāyaṇam tatra prayātā gacchanti brahma brahmavido janāḥ 8.24

धूमो रात्रिस्तथा कृष्णः षण्मासा दक्षिणायनम् ।
तत्र चान्द्रमसं ज्योतिर्योगी प्राप्य निवर्तते ॥८- २५॥
dhūmo rātris tathā kṛṣṇaḥ ṣaṇmāsā dakṣiṇāyanam tatra cāndramasaṃ jyotir yogī prāpya nivartate 8.25

शुक्लकृष्णे गती ह्येते जगतः शाश्वते मते ।
एकया यात्यनावृत्तिमन्ययावर्तते पुनः ॥८- २६॥
śuklakṛṣṇe gatī hy ete jagataḥ śāśvate mate ekayā yāty anāvṛttim anyayāvartate punaḥ 8.26

नैते सृती पार्थ जानन्योगी मुह्यति कश्चन ।
तस्मात्सर्वेषु कालेषु योगयुक्तो भवार्जुन ॥८- २७॥
naite sṛtī pārtha jānan yogī muhyati kaścana tasmāt sarveṣu kāleṣu yogayukto bhavārjuna 8.27

वेदेषु यज्ञेषु तपःसु चैव : दानेषु यत् पुण्यफलं प्रदिष्टम् ।
अत्येति तत्सर्वमिदं विदित्वा : योगी परं स्थानमुपैति चाद्यम् ॥८- २८॥
vedeṣu yajñeṣu tapaḥsu caiva dāneṣu yat puṇyaphalaṃ pradiṣṭam atyeti tat sarvam idaṃ viditvā yogī paraṃ sthānam upaiti cādyam 8.28

Brahman is the Supreme and indestructible. Adhyatma is said to be its own manifestation. The offering (to any godhead in a sacrifice) which causeth the production and development of all--this is called action. 3 Remembering me alone in (his) last moments, he that, casting off his body, departeth (hence), cometh into my essence. There is no doubt in this. Whichever form (of godhead) one remembereth when one casteth off, at the end, (his) body, unto that one he goeth, O son of Kunti, having habitually meditated on it always. Therefore, think of me at all times, and engage in battle. Fixing thy mind and understanding on me, thou wilt, without doubt, come even to me. Thinking (of the Supreme) with a mind not running to other objects and endued with abstraction in the form of uninterrupted application, one goeth, O son of Pritha, unto the Divine and Supreme male Being. He who at the time of his departure, with a steady mind, endued with reverence, with power of abstraction, and directing the life-breath called Prana between the eye-brows, thinketh of that ancient seer, who is the ruler (of all), who is minuter than the minutest atom, who is the ordainer of all, who is inconceivable in form, and who is beyond all darkness, cometh unto that Divine and Supreme Male Being, I will tell thee in brief about that seat which persons conversant with the Vedas declare to be indestructible, which is entered by ascetics freed from all longings, and in expectation of which (people) practise the vows of Brahmacharins. Casting off (this) body, he who departeth, stopping up all the doors, confining the mind within the heart, placing his own life-breath called Prana between the eye-brows, resting on continued meditation, p. 73 uttering this one syllable Om which is Brahman, and thinking of me, attaineth to the highest goal. 1 He who always thinketh of me with mind ever withdrawn from all other objects, unto that devotee always engaged on meditation, I am, O Partha, easy of access. High-souled persons who have achieved the highest perfection, attaining to me, do not incur re-birth which is the abode of sorrow and which is transient, All the worlds, O Arjuna, from the abode of Brahman downwards have to go through a round of births, on attaining to me, however, O son of Kunti, there is no re-birth. 2 They who know a day of Brahman to end after a thousand Yugas, and a night (of his) to terminate after a thousand Yugas are persons that know day and night. 3 On the advent of (Brahman's) day everything that is manifest springeth from the unmanifest; and when (his) night cometh, into that same which is called unmanifest all things disappear. That same assemblage of creatures, springing forth again and again, dissolveth on the advent of night, and springeth forth (again), O son of Pritha, when day cometh, constrained (by the force of action, etc.) 4. There is, however, another entity, unmanifest and eternal, which is beyond that unmanifest, and which is not destroyed when all the entities are destroyed. It is said to be unmanifest and indestructible. They call it the highest goal, attaining which no one hath to come back. That is my Supreme seat. That Supreme Being, O son of Pritha, He within whom are all entities, and by whom all this is permeated, is to be attained by reverence undirected to any other object. I will tell thee the times, O bull of Bharata's race, in which devotees departing (from this life) go, never to return, or to return. The fire, the Light, the day, the lighted fortnight, the six months of the northern solstice, departing from here, the persons knowing Brahma go through this path to Brahma. 5 Smoke, night, also the dark-fortnight (and) the six months of the southern solstice, (departing) through this path, devotee, attaining to the lunar light, returneth. The bright and the dark, these two paths, are regarded to be the eternal (two paths) of the universe. By the one, (one) goeth never to return; by the other, one (going) cometh back. Knowing these two paths, O son of Pritha, no devotee is deluded. Therefore, at all times, be endued with devotion, O Arjuna. The meritorious fruit that is prescribed for the (study of the) Vedas, for sacrifices, for ascetic austerities and for gifts, a devotee knowing all this (that hath been said here), attaineth to it all, and (also) attaineth the Supreme and Primeval seat.'

Chapter 9 राजविद्याराजगुह्ययोगः

श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,

इदं तु ते गुह्यतमं प्रवक्ष्याम्यनसूयवे ।
ज्ञानं विज्ञानसहितं यज्ज्ञात्वा मोक्ष्यसेऽशुभात् ॥९- १॥
idaṃ tu te guhyatamaṃ pravakṣyāmy anasūyave jñānaṃ vijñānasahitaṃ yaj jñātvā mokṣyaseśubhāt 9.1

राजविद्या राजगुह्यं पवित्रमिदमुत्तमम् ।
प्रत्यक्षावगमं धर्म्यं सुसुखं कर्तुमव्ययम् ॥९- २॥
rājavidyā rājaguhyaṃ pavitram idam uttamam pratyakṣāvagamaṃ dharmyaṃ susukhaṃ kartum avyayam 9.2

अश्रद्दधानाः पुरुषा धर्मस्यास्य परन्तप ।
अप्राप्य मां निवर्तन्ते मृत्युसंसारवर्त्मनि ॥९- ३॥
aśraddadhānāḥ puruṣā dharmasyāsya paraṃtapa aprāpya māṃ nivartante mṛtyusaṃsāravartmani 9.3

मया ततमिदं सर्वं जगदव्यक्तमूर्तिना ।
मत्स्थानि सर्वभूतानि न चाहं तेष्ववस्थितः ॥९- ४॥
mayā tatam idaṃ sarvaṃ jagad avyaktamūrtinā matsthāni sarvabhūtāni na cāhaṃ teṣv avasthitaḥ 9.4

न च मत्स्थानि भूतानि पश्य मे योगमैश्वरम् ।
भूतभृन्न च भूतस्थो ममात्मा भूतभावनः ॥९- ५॥
na ca matsthāni bhūtāni paśya me yogam aiśvaram bhūtabhṛn na ca bhūtastho mamātmā bhūtabhāvanaḥ 9.5

यथाकाशस्थितो नित्यं वायुः सर्वत्रगो महान् ।
तथा सर्वाणि भूतानि मत्स्थानीत्युपधारय ॥९- ६॥
yathākāśasthito nityaṃ vāyuḥ sarvatrago mahān tathā sarvāṇi bhūtāni matsthānīty upadhāraya 9.6

सर्वभूतानि कौन्तेय प्रकृतिं यान्ति मामिकाम् ।
कल्पक्षये पुनस्तानि कल्पादौ विसृजाम्यहम् ॥९- ७॥
sarvabhūtāni kaunteya prakṛtiṃ yānti māmikām kalpakṣaye punas tāni kalpādau visṛjāmy aham 9.7

प्रकृतिं स्वामवष्टभ्य विसृजामि पुनः पुनः ।
भूतग्राममिमं कृत्स्नमवशं प्रकृतेर्वशात् ॥९- ८॥
prakṛtiṃ svām avaṣṭabhya visṛjāmi punaḥ punaḥ bhūtagrāmam imaṃ kṛtsnam avaśaṃ prakṛter vaśāt 9.8

न च मां तानि कर्माणि निबध्नन्ति धनंजय ।
उदासीनवदासीनमसक्तं तेषु कर्मसु ॥९- ९॥
na ca māṃ tāni karmāṇi nibadhnanti dhanaṃjaya udāsīnavad āsīnam asaktaṃ teṣu karmasu 9.9

मयाध्यक्षेण प्रकृतिः सूयते सचराचरम् ।
हेतुनानेन कौन्तेय जगद्विपरिवर्तते ॥९- १०॥
mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ sūyate sacarācaram hetunānena kaunteya jagad viparivartate 9.10

अवजानन्ति मां मूढा मानुषीं तनुमाश्रितम् ।
परं भावमजानन्तो मम भूतमहेश्वरम् ॥९- ११॥
avajānanti māṃ mūḍhā mānuṣīṃ tanum āśritam paraṃ bhāvam ajānanto mama bhūtamaheśvaram 9.11

मोघाशा मोघकर्माणो मोघज्ञाना विचेतसः ।
राक्षसीमासुरीं चैव प्रकृतिं मोहिनीं श्रिताः ॥९- १२॥
moghāśā moghakarmāṇo moghajñānā vicetasaḥ rākṣasīm āsurīṃ caiva prakṛtiṃ mohinīṃ śritāḥ 9.12

महात्मानस्तु मां पार्थ दैवीं प्रकृतिमाश्रिताः ।
भजन्त्यनन्यमनसो ज्ञात्वा भूतादिमव्ययम् ॥९- १३॥
mahātmānas tu māṃ pārtha daivīṃ prakṛtim āśritāḥ bhajanty ananyamanaso jñātvā bhūtādim avyayam 9.13

सततं कीर्तयन्तो मां यतन्तश्च दृढव्रताः ।
नमस्यन्तश्च मां भक्त्या नित्ययुक्ता उपासते ॥९- १४॥
satataṃ kīrtayanto māṃ yatantaś ca dṛḍhavratāḥ namasyantaś ca māṃ bhaktyā nityayuktā upāsate 9.14

ज्ञानयज्ञेन चाप्यन्ये यजन्तो मामुपासते ।
एकत्वेन पृथक्त्वेन बहुधा विश्वतोमुखम् ॥९- १५॥
jñānayajñena cāpy anye yajanto mām upāsate ekatvena pṛthaktvena bahudhā viśvatomukham 9.15

अहं क्रतुरहं यज्ञः स्वधाहमहमौषधम् ।
मन्त्रोऽहमहमेवाज्यमहमग्निरहं हुतम् ॥९- १६॥
ahaṃ kratur ahaṃ yajñaḥ svadhāham aham auṣadham mantro.aham aham evājyam aham agnir ahaṃ hutam 9.16

पिताहमस्य जगतो माता धाता पितामहः ।
वेद्यं पवित्रमोंकार ऋक्साम यजुरेव च ॥९- १७॥
pitāham asya jagato mātā dhātā pitāmahaḥ vedyaṃ pavitram oṃkāra ṛk sāma yajur eva ca 9.17

गतिर्भर्ता प्रभुः साक्षी निवासः शरणं सुहृत् ।
प्रभवः प्रलयः स्थानं निधानं बीजमव्ययम् ॥९- १८॥
gatir bhartā prabhuḥ sākṣī nivāsaḥ śaraṇaṃ suhṛt prabhavaḥ pralayaḥ sthānaṃ nidhānaṃ bījam avyam 9.18

तपाम्यहमहं वर्षं निगृह्णाम्युत्सृजामि च ।
अमृतं चैव मृत्युश्च सदसच्चाहमर्जुन ॥९- १९॥
tapāmy aham ahaṃ varṣaṃ nigṛṇhāmy utsṛjāmi ca amṛtaṃ caiva mṛtyuś ca sad asac cāham arjuna 9.19

त्रैविद्या मां सोमपाः पूतपापा : यज्ञैरिष्ट्वा स्वर्गतिं प्रार्थयन्ते ।
ते पुण्यमासाद्य सुरेन्द्रलोक- : मश्नन्ति दिव्यान्दिवि देवभोगान् ॥९- २०॥
traividyā māṃ somapāḥ pūtapāpā yajñair iṣṭvā svargatiṃ prārthayante te puṇyam āsādya surendralokaṃ aśnanti divyān divi devabhogān 9.20

ते तं भुक्त्वा स्वर्गलोकं विशालं : क्षीणे पुण्ये मर्त्यलोकं विशन्ति ।
एवं त्रयीधर्ममनुप्रपन्ना : गतागतं कामकामा लभन्ते ॥९- २१॥
te taṃ bhuktvā svargalokaṃ viśālaṃ kṣīṇe puṇye martyalokaṃ viśanti evaṃ trayīdharmam anuprapannā gatāgataṃ kāmakāmā labhante 9.21

अनन्याश्चिन्तयन्तो मां ये जनाः पर्युपासते ।
तेषां नित्याभियुक्तानां योगक्षेमं वहाम्यहम् ॥९- २२॥
ananyāś cintayanto māṃ ye janāḥ paryupāsate teṣāṃ nityābhiyuktānāṃ yogakṣemaṃ vahāmy aham 9.22

येऽप्यन्यदेवताभक्ता यजन्ते श्रद्धयान्विताः ।
तेऽपि मामेव कौन्तेय यजन्त्यविधिपूर्वकम् ॥९- २३॥
yepy anyadevatābhaktā yajante śraddhayānvitāḥ tepi mām eva kaunteya yajanty avidhipūrvakam 9.23

अहं हि सर्वयज्ञानां भोक्ता च प्रभुरेव च ।
न तु मामभिजानन्ति तत्त्वेनातश्च्यवन्ति ते ॥९- २४॥
ahaṃ hi sarvayajñānāṃ bhoktā ca prabhur eva ca na tu mām abhijānanti tattvenātaś cyavanti te 9.24

यान्ति देवव्रता देवान्पितॄन्यान्ति पितृव्रताः ।
भूतानि यान्ति भूतेज्या यान्ति मद्याजिनोऽपि माम् ॥९- २५॥
yānti devavratā devān pitṛn yānti pitṛvratāḥ bhūtāni yānti bhūtejyā yānti madyājinopi mām 9.25

पत्रं पुष्पं फलं तोयं यो मे भक्त्या प्रयच्छति ।
तदहं भक्त्युपहृतमश्नामि प्रयतात्मनः ॥९- २६॥
patraṃ puṣpaṃ phalaṃ toyaṃ yo me bhaktyā prayacchati tad ahaṃ bhaktyupahṛtam aśnāmi prayatātmanaḥ 9.26

यत्करोषि यदश्नासि यज्जुहोषि ददासि यत् ।
यत्तपस्यसि कौन्तेय तत्कुरुष्व मदर्पणम् ॥९- २७॥
yat karoṣi yad aśnāsi yaj juhoṣi dadāsi yat yat tapasyasi kaunteya tat kuruṣva madarpaṇam 9.27

शुभाशुभफलैरेवं मोक्ष्यसे कर्मबन्धनैः ।
संन्यासयोगयुक्तात्मा विमुक्तो मामुपैष्यसि ॥९- २८॥
śubhāśubhaphalair evaṃ mokṣyase karmabandhanaiḥ saṃnyāsayogayuktātmā vimukto mām upaiṣyasi 9.28

समोऽहं सर्वभूतेषु न मे द्वेष्योऽस्ति न प्रियः ।
ये भजन्ति तु मां भक्त्या मयि ते तेषु चाप्यहम् ॥९- २९॥
samohaṃ sarvabhūteṣu na me dveṣyosti na priyaḥ ye bhajanti tu māṃ bhaktyā mayi te teṣu cāpy aham 9.29

अपि चेत्सुदुराचारो भजते मामनन्यभाक् ।
साधुरेव स मन्तव्यः सम्यग्व्यवसितो हि सः ॥९- ३०॥
api cet sudurācāro bhajate mām ananyabhāk sādhur eva sa mantavyaḥ samyag vyavasito hi saḥ 9.30

क्षिप्रं भवति धर्मात्मा शश्वच्छान्तिं निगच्छति ।
कौन्तेय प्रति जानीहि न मे भक्तः प्रणश्यति ॥९- ३१॥
kṣipraṃ bhavati dharmātmā śaśvacchāntiṃ nigacchhati kaunteya pratijānīhi na me bhaktaḥ praṇaśyati 9.31

मां हि पार्थ व्यपाश्रित्य येऽपि स्युः पापयोनयः ।
स्त्रियो वैश्यास्तथा शूद्रास्तेऽपि यान्ति परां गतिम् ॥९- ३२॥
māṃ hi pārtha vyapāśritya yepi syuḥ pāpayonayaḥ striyo vaiśyās tathā śūdrās tepi yānti parāṃ gatim 9.32

किं पुनर्ब्राह्मणाः पुण्या भक्ता राजर्षयस्तथा ।
अनित्यमसुखं लोकमिमं प्राप्य भजस्व माम् ॥९- ३३॥
kiṃ punar brāhmaṇāḥ puṇyā bhaktā rājarṣayas tathā anityam asukhaṃ lokam imaṃ prāpya bhajasva mām 9.33

मन्मना भव मद्भक्तो मद्याजी मां नमस्कुरु ।
मामेवैष्यसि युक्त्वैवमात्मानं मत्परायणः ॥९- ३४॥
manmanā bhava madbhakto madyājī māṃ namaskuru mām evaiṣyasi yuktvaivam ātmānaṃ matparāyaṇaḥ 9.34

Now I will tell thee that art without envy that most mysterious knowledge along with experience, knowing which thou wilt be freed from evil. This is royal science, a royal mystery, highly cleansing, directly apprehensible, consistent with the sacred laws, easy to practise, (and) imperishable. Those persons, O chastiser of foes, who have no faith in this sacred doctrine, not attaining to me, return to the path of this world that is subject to destruction. This entire universe is pervaded by me in my unmanifest form. All entities are in me, but I do not reside in them. Nor yet are all entities in me. Behold my divine power. Supporting all entities and producing all entities, myself doth not (yet) reside in (those) entities. As the great and obiquitious atmosphere always occupieth space, understand that all entities reside in me in the same way. 1 All entities, O son of Kunti, attain to my nature at the close of a Kalpa. I create them again at the beginning of a Kalpa. 2 Regulating my own (independent) nature I create again and in this whole assemblage of entities which is plastic in consequence of its subjection to nature. 3 Those acts, however, O Dhananjaya, do not fetter me who sitteth as one unconcerned, being unattached to those acts (of creation). Through me, the overlooker, primal nature produceth the (universe of) mobiles and immobiles. For the reason, O son of Kunti, the universe passeth through its rounds (of birth and destruction). 4 Not knowing my supreme nature of the great lord of all entities, ignorant people of vain hopes, vain acts, vain knowledge, confounded minds, wedded to the delusive nature of Asuras and Rakshasas, disregard me (as one) that hath assumed a human body. But high-souled ones, O son of Pritha, possessed of divine nature, and with minds directed to nothing else, worship me, knowing (me) to be the origin of all entities and undestructible. Always glorifying me, (or) striving with firm vows, (or) bowing down to me, with reverence and ever devoted, (they) worship me. 5 Others again, performing the sacrifice of knowledge, p. 75 worship me, (some) as one, (some) as distinct, (some) as pervading the universe, in many forms. 1 I am the Vedic sacrifice, I am the sacrifice enjoined in the Smritis, I am Swadha, I am the medicament produced from herbs; I am the mantra, I am the sacrificial libation, I am the fire, and I am the (sacrificial) offering. 2 I am the father of this universe, the mother, the creator, grandsire; (I am) the thing to be known, the means by which everything is cleaned, the syllable Om, the Rik, the Saman and the Yajus, (I am) the goal, the supporter, the lord, the on-looker, the abode, the refuge, the friend, the source, the destruction, the support, the receptacle; and the undestructible seed. I give heat, I produce and suspend rain; I am immortality, and also death; and I am the existent and the non-existent, O Arjuna. They who know the three branches of knowledge, also drink the Soma juice, and whose sins have been cleansed worshipping me by sacrifices, seek admission into heaven; and these attaining to the sacred region of the chief of the gods, enjoy in heaven the celestial pleasure of the gods. Having enjoyed that celestial world of vast extent, upon exhaustion of their merit they re-enter the mortal world. It is thus that they who accept the doctrines of the three Vedas and wish for objects of desires, obtain going and coming. Those persons who, thinking (of me) without directing their minds to anything else, worship me, of those who are (thus) always devoted (to me)--I make them gifts and preserve what they have. Even those devotees who, endued with faith worship other godheads even they, O son of Kunti, worship me alone, (though) irregularly. 3 I am the enjoyer, as also the lord, of all sacrifices. They, however, do not know me truly; hence they fall off (from heaven). They whose vows are directed to the Pitris attain to the Pitris; who direct (their) worship to the inferior spirits called Bhutas attain to Bhutas; they who worship me, attain even to myself. They who offer me with reverence, leaf, flower, fruit, water--that offered with reverence, I accept from him whose self is pure. 4 Whatever thou dost, whatever eatest, whatever drinkest, whatever givest, whatever austerities thou performest, manage it in such a way, O son of Kunti, that it may be an offering to me. Thus mayst thou be freed from the fetters of action having good and evil fruits. With self endued with renunciation and devotion, thou wilt be released and will come to me. I am alike to all creatures; there is none hateful to me, none dear. They, however, who worship me with reverence are in me and I also am in them. If even a person of exceedingly wicked conduct worshippeth me, without worshipping any one else, he should certainly be regard as good, for his efforts are well-directed. (Such a person) soon becometh of virtuous soul, and attaineth to eternal tranquillity. Know, O son of Kunti, that none devoted to me p. 76 is ever lost. For, O son of Pritha, even they who may be of sinful birth, women, Vaisyas, and also Sudras, even they, resorting to me, attain to the supreme goal. What then (shall I say) of holy Brahmanas and saints who are my devotees? Having come to this transient and miserable world, be engaged in my worship. 1 Fix thy mind on me; be my devotee, my worshipper; bow to me; and thus making me thy refuge and applying thy self to abstraction, thou wilt certainly come to me.'

Chapter 10 विभूतियोगः

श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavānuvāca

The Holy One said,

भूय एव महाबाहो शृणु मे परमं वचः ।
यत्तेऽहं प्रीयमाणाय वक्ष्यामि हितकाम्यया ॥१०- १॥
bhūya eva mahābāho śṛṇu me paramaṃ vacaḥ yat tehaṃ prīyamāṇāya vakṣyāmi hitakāmyayā 10.1

न मे विदुः सुरगणाः प्रभवं न महर्षयः ।
अहमादिर्हि देवानां महर्षीणां च सर्वशः ॥१०- २॥
na me viduḥ suragaṇāḥ prabhavaṃ na maharṣayaḥ aham ādir hi devānāṃ maharṣīṇāṃ ca sarvaśaḥ 10.2

यो मामजमनादिं च वेत्ति लोकमहेश्वरम् ।
असंमूढः स मर्त्येषु सर्वपापैः प्रमुच्यते ॥१०- ३॥
yo mām ajam anādiṃ ca vetti lokamaheśvaram asaṃmūḍhaḥ sa martyeṣu sarvapāpaiḥ pramucyate 10.3

बुद्धिर्ज्ञानमसंमोहः क्षमा सत्यं दमः शमः ।
सुखं दुःखं भवोऽभावो भयं चाभयमेव च ॥१०- ४॥
buddhir jñānam asaṃmohaḥ kṣamā satyaṃ damaḥ śamaḥ sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ bhavobhāvo bhayaṃ cābhayam eva ca 10.4

अहिंसा समता तुष्टिस्तपो दानं यशोऽयशः ।
भवन्ति भावा भूतानां मत्त एव पृथग्विधाः ॥१०- ५॥
ahiṃsā samatā tuṣṭis tapo dānaṃ yaśoyaśaḥ bhavanti bhāvā bhūtānāṃ matta eva pṛthagvidhāḥ 10.5

महर्षयः सप्त पूर्वे चत्वारो मनवस्तथा ।
मद्भावा मानसा जाता येषां लोक इमाः प्रजाः ॥१०- ६॥
maharṣayaḥ sapta pūrve catvāro manavas tathā madbhāvā mānasā jātā yeṣāṃ loka imāḥ prajāḥ 10.6

एतां विभूतिं योगं च मम यो वेत्ति तत्त्वतः ।
सोऽविकम्पेन योगेन युज्यते नात्र संशयः ॥१०- ७॥
etāṃ vibhūtiṃ yogaṃ ca mama yo vetti tattvataḥ sovikampena yogena yujyate nātra saṃśayaḥ 10.7

अहं सर्वस्य प्रभवो मत्तः सर्वं प्रवर्तते ।
इति मत्वा भजन्ते मां बुधा भावसमन्विताः ॥१०- ८॥
ahaṃ sarvasya prabhavo mattaḥ sarvaṃ pravartate iti matvā bhajante māṃ budhā bhāvasamanvitāḥ 10.8

मच्चित्ता मद्गतप्राणा बोधयन्तः परस्परम् ।
कथयन्तश्च मां नित्यं तुष्यन्ति च रमन्ति च ॥१०- ९॥
maccittā madgataprāṇā bodhayantaḥ parasparam kathayantaś ca māṃ nityaṃ tuṣyanti ca ramanti ca 10.9

तेषां सततयुक्तानां भजतां प्रीतिपूर्वकम् ।
ददामि बुद्धियोगं तं येन मामुपयान्ति ते ॥१०- १०॥
teṣāṃ satatayuktānāṃ bhajatāṃ prītipūrvakam dadāmi buddhiyogaṃ taṃ yena mām upayānti te 10.10

तेषामेवानुकम्पार्थमहमज्ञानजं तमः ।
नाशयाम्यात्मभावस्थो ज्ञानदीपेन भास्वता ॥१०- ११॥
teṣām evānukampārtham aham ajñānajaṃ tamaḥ nāśayāmy ātmabhāvastho jñānadīpena bhāsvatā 10.11

Once more still, O mighty-armed one, listen to my supernal words which, from desire of (thy) good, I say unto thee that wouldst be pleased (therewith). 2 The hosts of gods know not my origin, nor the great Rishis, since I am, in every way, the source of the gods and the great Rishis. 3 He that knoweth me as the Supreme Lord of the worlds, without birth and beginning, (he), undeluded among mortals, is free from all sins. Intelligence, knowledge, the absence of delusion, forgiveness, truth, self-restraint, and tranquillity, pleasure, pain, birth, death, fear, and also security, abstention from harm, evenness of mind, contentment, ascetic austerities, gift, fame, infamy, these several attributes of creatures arise from me. The Seven great Rishis, the four Maharishis before (them), and the Manus, partaking of my nature, were born from my mind, of whom in this world are these offsprings. 4 He that knoweth truly this pre-eminence and mystic power of mine, becometh possessed of unswerving devotion. Of this (there is) no doubt. I am the origin of all things, from me all things proceed. Thinking thus, the wise, endued with my nature, worship me. 5 Their hearts on me, their lives devoted to me, instructing one another, and gloryfying me they are ever contented and happy. 6 Unto them always devoted, and worshipping (me) with love, I give that devotion in the form of knowledge by which they come to me. 1 Of them, for compassion's sake. I destroy the darkness born of ignorance, by the brilliant lamp of knowledge, (myself) dwelling in their souls.'

Section 27
अर्जुन उवाच
arjuna uvāca

Arjuna said,

परं ब्रह्म परं धाम पवित्रं परमं भवान् ।
पुरुषं शाश्वतं दिव्यमादिदेवमजं विभुम् ॥१०- १२॥
paraṃ brahma paraṃ dhāma pavitraṃ paramaṃ bhavān puruṣaṃ śāśvataṃ divyam ādidevam ajaṃ vibhum 10.12

Thou art the Supreme Brahma, the Supreme Abode, the Holiest of the Holy, the eternal Male Being Divine, the First of gods Unborn, the Lord.

आहुस्त्वामृषयः सर्वे देवर्षिर्नारदस्तथा ।
असितो देवलो व्यासः स्वयं चैव ब्रवीषि मे ॥१०- १३॥
āhus tvām ṛṣayaḥ sarve devarṣir nāradas tathā asito devalo vyāsaḥ svayaṃ caiva bravīṣi me 10.13

All the Rishis proclaim thee thus, and also the celestial Rishi Narada; and Asita, Devala, (and) Vyasa; thyself also tellest me (so).

सर्वमेतदृतं मन्ये यन्मां वदसि केशव ।
न हि ते भगवन्व्यक्तिं विदुर्देवा न दानवाः ॥१०- १४॥
sarvam etad ṛtaṃ manye yan māṃ vadasi keśava na hi te bhagavan vyaktiṃ vidur devā na dānavāḥ 10.14

All this that thou tellest me, O Kesava, I regard as true since, O Holy One, neither the gods nor the Danavas understand thy manifestation.

स्वयमेवात्मनात्मानं वेत्थ त्वं पुरुषोत्तम ।
भूतभावन भूतेश देवदेव जगत्पते ॥१०- १५॥
svayam evātmanātmānaṃ vettha tvaṃ puruṣottama bhūtabhāvana bhūteśa devadeva jagatpate 10.15

Thou only knowest thyself by thyself. O Best of Male Beings. O Creator of all things; O Lord of all things, O God of gods, O Lord of the Universe,

वक्तुमर्हस्यशेषेण दिव्या ह्यात्मविभूतयः ।
याभिर्विभूतिभिर्लोकानिमांस्त्वं व्याप्य तिष्ठसि ॥१०- १६॥
vaktum arhasy aśeṣeṇa divyā hy ātmavibhūtayaḥ yābhir vibhūtibhir lokān imāṃs tvaṃ vyāpya tiṣṭhasi 10.16

it behoveth thee to declare without any reservation, those divine perfections of thine by which perfections pervading these worlds thou abidest.

कथं विद्यामहं योगिंस्त्वां सदा परिचिन्तयन् ।
केषु केषु च भावेषु चिन्त्योऽसि भगवन्मया ॥१०- १७॥
kathaṃ vidyām ahaṃ yogiṃs tvāṃ sadā paricintayan keṣu keṣu ca bhāveṣu cintyosi bhagavan mayā 10.17

How shall I, ever meditating, know thee, O thou of mystic powers, in what particular states mayst thou, O Holy One, be meditated upon by me?

विस्तरेणात्मनो योगं विभूतिं च जनार्दन ।
भूयः कथय तृप्तिर्हि शृण्वतो नास्ति मेऽमृतम् ॥१०- १८॥
vistareṇātmano yogaṃ vibhūtiṃ ca janārdana bhūyaḥ kathaya tṛptir hi śṛṇvato nāsti memṛtam 10.18

Do thou again, O Janardana, copiously declare thy mystic powers and (thy) perfections, for I am never satiated with hearing thy nectar-like words.

Section 28
श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,

हन्त ते कथयिष्यामि दिव्या ह्यात्मविभूतयः ।
प्राधान्यतः कुरुश्रेष्ठ नास्त्यन्तो विस्तरस्य मे ॥१०- १९॥
hanta te kathayiṣyāmi divyā hy ātmavibhūtayaḥ prādhānyataḥ kuruśreṣṭha nāsty anto vistarasya me 10.19

अहमात्मा गुडाकेश सर्वभूताशयस्थितः ।
अहमादिश्च मध्यं च भूतानामन्त एव च ॥१०- २०॥
aham ātmā guḍākeśa sarvabhūtāśayasthitaḥ aham ādiś ca madhyaṃ ca bhūtānām anta eva ca 10.20

आदित्यानामहं विष्णुर्ज्योतिषां रविरंशुमान् ।
मरीचिर्मरुतामस्मि नक्षत्राणामहं शशी ॥१०- २१॥
ādityānām ahaṃ viṣṇur jyotiṣāṃ ravir aṃśumān marīcir marutām asmi nakṣatrāṇām ahaṃ śaśī 10.21

वेदानां सामवेदोऽस्मि देवानामस्मि वासवः ।
इन्द्रियाणां मनश्चास्मि भूतानामस्मि चेतना ॥१०- २२॥
vedānāṃ sāmavedosmi devānām asmi vāsavaḥ indriyāṇāṃ manaś cāsmi bhūtānām asmi cetanā 10.22

रुद्राणां शंकरश्चास्मि वित्तेशो यक्षरक्षसाम् ।
वसूनां पावकश्चास्मि मेरुः शिखरिणामहम् ॥१०- २३॥
rudrāṇāṃ śaṃkaraś cāsmi vitteśo yakṣarakṣasām vasūnāṃ pāvakaś cāsmi meruḥ śikhariṇām aham 10.23

पुरोधसां च मुख्यं मां विद्धि पार्थ बृहस्पतिम् ।
सेनानीनामहं स्कन्दः सरसामस्मि सागरः ॥१०- २४॥
purodhasāṃ ca mukhyaṃ māṃ viddhi pārtha bṛhaspatim senānīnām ahaṃ skandaḥ sarasām asmi sāgaraḥ 10.24

महर्षीणां भृगुरहं गिरामस्म्येकमक्षरम् ।
यज्ञानां जपयज्ञोऽस्मि स्थावराणां हिमालयः ॥१०- २५॥
maharṣīṇāṃ bhṛgur ahaṃ girām asmy ekam akṣaram yajñānāṃ japayajñosmi sthāvarāṇāṃ himālayaḥ 10.25

अश्वत्थः सर्ववृक्षाणां देवर्षीणां च नारदः ।
गन्धर्वाणां चित्ररथः सिद्धानां कपिलो मुनिः ॥१०- २६॥
aśvatthaḥ sarvavṛkṣāṇāṃ devarṣīṇāṃ ca nāradaḥ gandharvāṇāṃ citrarathaḥ siddhānāṃ kapilo muniḥ 10.26

उच्चैःश्रवसमश्वानां विद्धि माममृतोद्भवम् ।
ऐरावतं गजेन्द्राणां नराणां च नराधिपम् ॥१०- २७॥
uccaiḥśravasam aśvānāṃ viddhi mām amṛtodbhavam airāvataṃ gajendrāṇāṃ narāṇāṃ ca narādhipam 10.27

आयुधानामहं वज्रं धेनूनामस्मि कामधुक् ।
प्रजनश्चास्मि कन्दर्पः सर्पाणामस्मि वासुकिः ॥१०- २८॥
āyudhānām ahaṃ vajraṃ dhenūnām asmi kāmadhuk prajanaś cāsmi kandarpaḥ sarpāṇām asmi vāsukiḥ 10.28

अनन्तश्चास्मि नागानां वरुणो यादसामहम् ।
पितॄणामर्यमा चास्मि यमः संयमतामहम् ॥१०- २९॥
anantaś cāsmi nāgānāṃ varuṇo yādasām aham pitṛṇām aryamā cāsmi yamaḥ saṃyamatām aham 10.29

प्रह्लादश्चास्मि दैत्यानां कालः कलयतामहम् ।
मृगाणां च मृगेन्द्रोऽहं वैनतेयश्च पक्षिणाम् ॥१०- ३०॥
pralhādaś cāsmi daityānāṃ kālaḥ kalayatām aham mṛgāṇāṃ ca mṛgendrohaṃ vainateyaś ca pakṣiṇām 10.30

पवनः पवतामस्मि रामः शस्त्रभृतामहम् ।
झषाणां मकरश्चास्मि स्रोतसामस्मि जाह्नवी ॥१०- ३१॥
pavanaḥ pavatām asmi rāmaḥ śastrabhṛtām aham jhaṣāṇāṃ makaraś cāsmi strotasām asmi jāhnavī 10.31

सर्गाणामादिरन्तश्च मध्यं चैवाहमर्जुन ।
अध्यात्मविद्या विद्यानां वादः प्रवदतामहम् ॥१०- ३२॥
sargāṇām ādir antaś ca madhyaṃ caivāham arjuna adhyātmavidyā vidyānāṃ vādaḥ pravadatām aham 10.32

अक्षराणामकारोऽस्मि द्वन्द्वः सामासिकस्य च ।
अहमेवाक्षयः कालो धाताहं विश्वतोमुखः ॥१०- ३३॥
akṣarāṇām akārosmi dvandvaḥ sāmāsikasya ca aham evākṣayaḥ kālo dhātāhaṃ viśvatomukhaḥ 10.33

मृत्युः सर्वहरश्चाहमुद्भवश्च भविष्यताम् ।
कीर्तिः श्रीर्वाक्च नारीणां स्मृतिर्मेधा धृतिः क्षमा ॥१०- ३४॥
mṛtyuḥ sarvaharaś cāham udbhavaś ca bhaviṣyatām kīrtiḥ śrīr vāk ca nārīṇāṃ smṛtir medhā dhṛtiḥ kṣamā 10.34

बृहत्साम तथा साम्नां गायत्री छन्दसामहम् ।
मासानां मार्गशीर्षोऽहमृतूनां कुसुमाकरः ॥१०- ३५॥
bṛhatsāma tathā sāmnāṃ gāyatrī chandasām aham māsānāṃ mārgaśīrṣoham ṛtūnāṃ kusumākaraḥ 10.35

द्यूतं छलयतामस्मि तेजस्तेजस्विनामहम् ।
जयोऽस्मि व्यवसायोऽस्मि सत्त्वं सत्त्ववतामहम् ॥१०- ३६॥
dyutaṃ chalayatām asmi tejas tejasvinām aham jayosmi vyavasāyosmi sattvaṃ sattvavatām aham 10.36

वृष्णीनां वासुदेवोऽस्मि पाण्डवानां धनंजयः ।
मुनीनामप्यहं व्यासः कवीनामुशना कविः ॥१०- ३७॥
vṛṣṇīnāṃ vāsudevosmi pāṇḍavānāṃ dhanaṃjayaḥ munīnām apy ahaṃ vyāsaḥ kavīnām uśanā kaviḥ 10.37

दण्डो दमयतामस्मि नीतिरस्मि जिगीषताम् ।
मौनं चैवास्मि गुह्यानां ज्ञानं ज्ञानवतामहम् ॥१०- ३८॥
daṇḍo damayatām asmi nītir asmi jigīṣatām maunaṃ caivāsmi guhyānāṃ jñānaṃ jñānavatām aham 10.38

यच्चापि सर्वभूतानां बीजं तदहमर्जुन ।
न तदस्ति विना यत्स्यान्मया भूतं चराचरम् ॥१०- ३९॥
yac cāpi sarvabhūtānāṃ bījaṃ tad aham arjuna na tad asti vinā yat syān mayā bhūtaṃ carācaram 10.39

नान्तोऽस्ति मम दिव्यानां विभूतीनां परन्तप ।
एष तूद्देशतः प्रोक्तो विभूतेर्विस्तरो मया ॥१०- ४०॥
nāntosti mama divyānāṃ vibhūtīnāṃ paraṃtapa eṣa tūddeśataḥ prokto vibhūter vistaro mayā 10.40

यद्यद्विभूतिमत्सत्त्वं श्रीमदूर्जितमेव वा ।
तत्तदेवावगच्छ त्वं मम तेजोंऽशसंभवम् ॥१०- ४१॥
yad yad vibhūtimat sattvaṃ śrīmad ūrjitam eva vā tat tad evāvagaccha tvaṃ mama tejoṃśasaṃbhavam 10.41

अथवा बहुनैतेन किं ज्ञातेन तवार्जुन ।
विष्टभ्याहमिदं कृत्स्नमेकांशेन स्थितो जगत् ॥१०- ४२॥
athavā bahunaitena kiṃ jñātena tavārjuna viṣṭabhyāham idaṃ kṛtsnam ekāṃśena sthito jagat 10.42

Well, unto thee I will declare my divine perfections, by means of the principal ones (among them), O chief of the Kurus, for there is no end to the extent of my (perfections). 3 I am the soul, O thou of curly hair, seated in the heart of every being, I am the beginning, and the middle, and the end also of all beings. I am Vishnu among the Adityas, the resplendent Sun among all luminous bodies; I am Marichi among the Maruts, and the Moon among constellations. 4 I am the Sama Veda among the Vedas; I am Vasava among the gods; I am the mind among the senses; I am the intellect in (living) beings. I am Sankara among the Rudras, the Lord of treasures among the Yakshas and the Rakshasas; I am Pavaka among the Vasus, and Meru among the peaked (mountains). 5 Know me, O son of Pritha, to be Vrihaspati, the chief of household priests. I am Skanda among commanders of forces. I am Ocean among receptacles of water. I am Bhrigu among the great Rishis, I am the One, undestructible (syllable Om) among words. Of sacrifices I am the Japa-sacrifice. 6 Of immobiles I am the Himavat. I am the figtree p. 78 among all trees, I am Narada among the celestial Rishis. I am Chitraratha among the Gandharvas and the ascetic Kapila among ascetics crowned with Yoga success. Know me to be Uchchaisravas among horses, brought forth by (the churning for) nectar, Airavata among princely elephants, and the king among men. Among weapons I am the thunderbolt, among cows I am (she called) Kamadhuk. I am Kandarpa the cause of reproduction, I am Vasuki among serpents. 1 I am Ananta among Nagas, I am Varuna among acquatic beings, I am Aryaman among the Pitris, and Yama among those that judge and punish. 2 I am Prahlada among the Daityas, and Time among things that count. I am the lion among the beasts, and Vinata's son among winged creatures. Of purifiers I am the wind. I am Rama among wielders of weapons. I am the Makara among fishes, and I am Jahnavi (Ganga) among streams. 3 Of created things I am the beginning and the end and also the middle, O Arjuna. I am the knowledge of Supreme Spirit among all kinds of knowledge, and the disputation among disputants. 4 Among all letters I am the letter A, and (the compound called) Dwanda among all compounds. I am also Time Eternal, and I am the Ordainer with face turned on every side. 5 I am Death that seizeth all, and the source of all, that is to be. Among females, I am Fame, Fortune, Speech, Memory, Intelligence, Constancy, Forgiveness. Of the Sama hymns, I am the Vrihat-sama and Gayatri among metres. Of the months, I am Margasirsha, of the seasons (I am) that which is productive of flowers. 6 I am the game of dice of them that cheat, and the splendour of those that are splendid. I am Victory, I am Exertion, I am the goodness of the good. I am Vasudeva among the Vrishnis, I am Dhananjaya among the sons of Pandu. I am even Vyasa among the ascetics, and Usanas among seers. I am the Rod of those that chastise, I am the Policy of those that seek victory. I am silence among those that are secret. I am the Knowledge of those that are possessed of Knowledge. That which is the Seed of all things, I am that, O Arjuna. There is nothing mobile or p. 79 immobile, which can exist without me. There is no end, O chastiser of foes, of my divine perfections. This recital of the extent of (those) perfections hath been uttered by me by way (only) of instancing them. Whatever of exalted things (there is) or glorious, or strong, understand thou that everything is born of a portion of my energy. Or rather, what hast thou to do, by knowing all this in detail, O Arjuna? Supporting this entire universe with only a portion (of myself), I stand.

Chapter 11 विश्वरूपदर्शनयोगः

Section 29
अर्जुन उवाच
arjuna uvāca

Arjuna said,

मदनुग्रहाय परमं गुह्यमध्यात्मसंज्ञितम् ।
यत्त्वयोक्तं वचस्तेन मोहोऽयं विगतो मम ॥११- १॥
madanugrahāya paramaṃ guhyamadhyātmasaṃjñitam yat tvayoktaṃ vacas tena mohoyaṃ vigato mama 11.1

This discourse about the supreme mystery, called Adhyatman, which thou hast uttered for my welfare, hath dispelled my delusion.

भवाप्ययौ हि भूतानां श्रुतौ विस्तरशो मया ।
त्वत्तः कमलपत्राक्ष माहात्म्यमपि चाव्ययम् ॥११- २॥
bhavāpyayau hi bhūtānāṃ śrutau vistaraśo mayā tvattaḥ kamalapatrākṣa māhātmyam api cāvyayam 11.2

For I have heard at large from thee of the creation and dissolution of beings, O thou of eyes like lotus petals, and also of thy greatness that knoweth no deterioration.

एवमेतद्यथात्थ त्वमात्मानं परमेश्वर ।
द्रष्टुमिच्छामि ते रूपमैश्वरं पुरुषोत्तम ॥११- ३॥
evam etad yathāttha tvam ātmānaṃ parameśvara draṣṭum icchāmi te rūpam aiśvaraṃ puruṣottama 11.3

What thou hast said about thyself, O great Lord, is even so. O best of Male Beings, I desire to behold thy sovereign form.

मन्यसे यदि तच्छक्यं मया द्रष्टुमिति प्रभो ।
योगेश्वर ततो मे त्वं दर्शयात्मानमव्ययम् ॥११- ४॥
manyase yadi tac chakyaṃ mayā draṣṭum iti prabho yogeśvara tato me tvaṃ darśayātmānam avyayam 11.4

If, O Lord, thou thinkest that I am competent to behold that (form), then, O Lord of mystic power, show me thy eternal Self.

Section 30
श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,--'

पश्य मे पार्थ रूपाणि शतशोऽथ सहस्रशः ।
नानाविधानि दिव्यानि नानावर्णाकृतीनि च ॥११- ५॥
paśya me pārtha rūpāṇi śataśotha sahastraśaḥ nānāvidhāni divyāni nānāvarṇākṛtīni ca 11.5

Behold, O son of Pritha, my forms by hundreds and thousands, various, divine, diverse in hue and shape.

पश्यादित्यान्वसून्रुद्रानश्विनौ मरुतस्तथा ।
बहून्यदृष्टपूर्वाणि पश्याश्चर्याणि भारत ॥११- ६॥
paśyādityān vasūn rudrān aśvinau marutas tathā bahūny adṛṣṭapūrvāṇi paśyāścaryāṇi bhārata 11.6

Behold the Adityas, the Vasus, the Rudras, the Aswins, and the Maruts. Behold, O Bharata, innumerable marvels unseen before (by thee).

इहैकस्थं जगत्कृत्स्नं पश्याद्य सचराचरम् ।
मम देहे गुडाकेश यच्चान्यद् द्रष्टुमिच्छसि ॥११- ७॥
ihaikasthaṃ jagat kṛtsnaṃ paśyādya sacarācaram mama dehe guḍākeśa yac cānyad draṣṭum icchasi 11.7

Behold, O thou of curly hair, the entire universe of mobiles and immobiles, collected together in this body of mine, whatever else thou mayst wish to see.

न तु मां शक्यसे द्रष्टुमनेनैव स्वचक्षुषा ।
दिव्यं ददामि ते चक्षुः पश्य मे योगमैश्वरम् ॥११- ८॥
na tu māṃ śakyase draṣṭum anenaiva svacakṣuṣā divyaṃ dadāmi te cakṣuḥ paśya me yogam aiśvaram 11.8

Thou art, however, not competent to behold me with this eye of thine. I give thee celestial sight. Behold my sovereign mystic nature.'

Section 31
संजय उवाच
sañjaya uvāca

Sanjaya continued,--

एवमुक्त्वा ततो राजन्महायोगेश्वरो हरिः ।
दर्शयामास पार्थाय परमं रूपमैश्वरम् ॥११- ९॥
evam uktvā tato rājan mahāyogeśvaro hariḥ darśayām āsa pārthāya paramaṃ rūpam aiśvaram 11.9

Having said this, O monarch, Hari, the mighty Lord of mystic power, then revealed to the son of Pritha his Supreme sovereign form,

अनेकवक्त्रनयनमनेकाद्भुतदर्शनम् ।
अनेकदिव्याभरणं दिव्यानेकोद्यतायुधम् ॥११- १०॥
anekavaktranayanam anekādbhutadarśanam anekadivyābharaṇaṃ divyānekodyatāyudham 11.10

with many mouths and eyes, many wonderous aspects, many celestial ornaments, many celestial weapons uplifted,

दिव्यमाल्याम्बरधरं दिव्यगन्धानुलेपनम् ।
सर्वाश्चर्यमयं देवमनन्तं विश्वतोमुखम् ॥११- ११॥
divyamālyāmbaradharaṃ divyagandhānulepanam sarvāścaryamayaṃ devam anantaṃ viśvatomukham 11.11

wearing celestial garlands and robes, (and) with unguents of celestial fragrance, full of every wonder, resplendent, infinite, with faces turned on all sides.

दिवि सूर्यसहस्रस्य भवेद्युगपदुत्थिता ।
यदि भाः सदृशी सा स्याद्भासस्तस्य महात्मनः ॥११- १२॥
divi sūryasahastrasya bhaved yugapad utthitā yadi bhāḥ sadṛśī sā syād bhāsas tasya mahātmanaḥ 11.12

If the splendour of a thousand suns were to burst forth at once in the sky, (then) that would be like the splendour of that Mighty One.

तत्रैकस्थं जगत्कृत्स्नं प्रविभक्तमनेकधा ।
अपश्यद्देवदेवस्य शरीरे पाण्डवस्तदा ॥११- १३॥
tatraikasthaṃ jagat kṛtsnaṃ pravibhaktam anekadhā apaśyad devadevasya śarīre pāṇḍavas tadā 11.13

The son of Pandu then beheld there in the body of that God of gods the entire universe divided and sub-divided into many parts, all collected together.

ततः स विस्मयाविष्टो हृष्टरोमा धनंजयः ।
प्रणम्य शिरसा देवं कृताञ्जलिरभाषत ॥११- १४॥
tataḥ sa vismayāviṣṭo hṛṣṭaromā dhanaṃjayaḥ praṇamya śirasā devaṃ kṛtāñjalir abhāṣata 11.14

Then Dhananjaya, filled with amazement, (and) with hair standing on end, bowing with (his) head, with joined hands addressed the God.

Section 32
अर्जुन उवाच
arjuna uvāca

Arjuna said,

पश्यामि देवांस्तव देव देहे: सर्वांस्तथा भूतविशेषसंघान् ।
ब्रह्माणमीशं कमलासनस्थ-: मृषींश्च सर्वानुरगांश्च दिव्यान् ॥११- १५॥
paśyāmi devāṃs tava deva dehe sarvāṃs tathā bhūtaviśeṣasaṃghān brahmāṇam īśaṃ kamalāsanasthaṃ ṛṣīṃś ca sarvān uragāṃś ca divyān 11.15

I behold all the gods, O God, as also all the varied hosts of creatures, (and) Brahman seated on (his) lotus seat, and all the Rishis and the celestial snakes.

अनेकबाहूदरवक्त्रनेत्रं: पश्यामि त्वां सर्वतोऽनन्तरूपम् ।
नान्तं न मध्यं न पुनस्तवादिं: पश्यामि विश्वेश्वर विश्वरूप ॥११- १६॥
anekabāhūdaravaktranetraṃ paśyāmi tvāṃ sarvatonantarūpam nāntaṃ na madhyaṃ na punas tavādiṃ paśyāmi viśveśvara viśvarūpa 11.16

I behold Thee with innumerable arms, stomachs, mouths, (and) eyes, on every side, O thou of infinite forms. Neither end nor middle, nor also beginning of thine do I behold, O Lord of the universe, O thou of universal form.

किरीटिनं गदिनं चक्रिणं च: तेजोराशिं सर्वतो दीप्तिमन्तम् ।
पश्यामि त्वां दुर्निरीक्ष्यं समन्ता-: द्दीप्तानलार्कद्युतिमप्रमेयम् ॥११- १७॥
kirīṭinaṃ gadinaṃ cakriṇaṃ ca tejorāśiṃ sarvato dīptimantam paśyāmi tvāṃ durnirīkṣyaṃ samantād dīptānalārkadyutim aprameyam 11.17

Bearing (thy) diadem, mace, and discus, a mass of energy, glowing on all sides, do I behold thee that art hard to look at, endued on all sides with the effulgence of the blazing fire or the Sun, (and) immeasurable.

त्वमक्षरं परमं वेदितव्यं: त्वमस्य विश्वस्य परं निधानम् ।
त्वमव्ययः शाश्वतधर्मगोप्ता: सनातनस्त्वं पुरुषो मतो मे ॥११- १८॥
tvam akṣaraṃ paramaṃ veditavyaṃ tvam asya viśvasya paraṃ nidhānam tvam avyayaḥ śāśvatadharmagoptā sanātanas tvaṃ puruṣo mato me 11.18

Thou art indestructible, (and) the Supreme object of this universe.Thou art without decay, the guardian of eternal virtue. I regard thee to be the eternal (male) Being.

अनादिमध्यान्तमनन्तवीर्य-: मनन्तबाहुं शशिसूर्यनेत्रम् ।
पश्यामि त्वां दीप्तहुताशवक्त्रं: स्वतेजसा विश्वमिदं तपन्तम् ॥११- १९॥
anādimadhyāntam anantavīryam anantabāhuṃ śaśisūryanetram paśyāmi tvāṃ dīptahutāśavaktraṃ svatejasā viśvam idaṃ tapantam 11.19

I behold thee to be without beginning, mean, end, to be of infinite prowess, of innumerable arms, having the Sun and the Moon for thy eyes, the blazing fire for thy mouth, and heating this universe with energy of thy own.

द्यावापृथिव्योरिदमन्तरं हि: व्याप्तं त्वयैकेन दिशश्च सर्वाः ।
दृष्ट्वाद्भुतं रूपमुग्रं तवेदं: लोकत्रयं प्रव्यथितं महात्मन् ॥११- २०॥
dyāvāpṛthivyor idam antaraṃ hi vyāptaṃ tvayaikena diśaś ca sarvāḥ dṛṣṭvādbhutaṃ rupam ugraṃ tavedaṃ lokatrayaṃ pravyathitaṃ mahātman 11.20

For the space betwixt heaven and earth is pervaded by Thee alone, as also all the points of the horizon. At sight of this marvellous and fierce form of thine, O Supreme Soul, the triple world trembleth.

अमी हि त्वां सुरसंघा विशन्ति: केचिद्भीताः प्राञ्जलयो गृणन्ति ।
स्वस्तीत्युक्त्वा महर्षिसिद्धसंघाः: स्तुवन्ति त्वां स्तुतिभिः पुष्कलाभिः ॥११- २१॥
amī hi tvāṃ surasaṃghā viśanti kecid bhītāḥ prāñjalayo gṛṇanti svastīty uktvā maharṣisiddhasaṃghāḥ stuvanti tvāṃ stutibhiḥ puṣkalābhiḥ 11.21

For these hosts of gods are entering thee Some, afraid, are praying with joined hands. Saying Hail to Thee--the hosts of great Rishis and Siddhas praise Thee with copious hymns of praise.

रुद्रादित्या वसवो ये च साध्या: विश्वेऽश्विनौ मरुतश्चोष्मपाश्च ।
गन्धर्वयक्षासुरसिद्धसंघा: वीक्षन्ते त्वां विस्मिताश्चैव सर्वे ॥११- २२॥
rudrādityā vasavo ye ca sādhyā viśveśvinau marutaś coṣmapāś ca gandharvayakṣāsurasiddhasaṃghā vīkṣante tvāṃ vismitāś caiva sarve 11.22

The Rudras, the Adityas, the Vasus, they that (called) the Siddhas, the Viswas, the Aswins, the Maruts, also the Ushmapas, the Gandharvas, the Yakshas, the Asuras, the hosts of Siddhyas, behold Thee and are all amazed.

रूपं महत्ते बहुवक्त्रनेत्रं: महाबाहो बहुबाहूरुपादम् ।
बहूदरं बहुदंष्ट्राकरालं: दृष्ट्वा लोकाः प्रव्यथितास्तथाहम् ॥११- २३॥
rūpaṃ mahat te bahuvaktranetraṃ mahābāho bahubāhūrupādam bahūdaraṃ bahudañṣṭrākarālaṃ dṛṣṭvā lokāḥ pravyathitās tathāham 11.23

Beholding Thy mighty form with many mouths and eyes, O mighty-armed one, with innumerable arms, thighs and feet, many stomachs, (and) terrible in consequence of many tusks, all creatures are frightened and I also.

नभःस्पृशं दीप्तमनेकवर्णं: व्यात्ताननं दीप्तविशालनेत्रम् ।
दृष्ट्वा हि त्वां प्रव्यथितान्तरात्मा: धृतिं न विन्दामि शमं च विष्णो ॥११- २४॥
nabhaḥspṛśaṃ dīptam anekavarṇaṃ vyāttānanaṃ dīptaviśālanetram dṛṣṭvā hi tvāṃ pravyathitāntarātmā dhṛtiṃ na vindāmi śamaṃ ca viṣṇo 11.24

Indeed, touching the very skies, of blazing radiance, many-hued, mouth wide-open, with eyes that are blazing and large, beholding thee, O Vishnu, with (my) inner soul trembling (in fright), I can no longer command courage and peace of mind.

दंष्ट्राकरालानि च ते मुखानि : दृष्ट्वैव कालानलसन्निभानि ।
दिशो न जाने न लभे च शर्म: प्रसीद देवेश जगन्निवास ॥११- २५॥
daṃṣṭrākarālāni ca te mukhāni dṛṣṭvaiva kālānalasaṃnibhāni diśo na jāne na labhe ca śarma prasīda deveśa jagannivāsa 11.25

Beholding thy mouths that are terrible in consequence of (their) tusks, and that are fierce (as the all-destroying fire at the end of the Yuga), I cannot recognise the points of the horizon nor can I command peace of mind. Be gracious, O God of gods, O thou that art the refuge of the Universe.

अमी च त्वां धृतराष्ट्रस्य पुत्राः: सर्वे सहैवावनिपालसंघैः ।
भीष्मो द्रोणः सूतपुत्रस्तथासौ: सहास्मदीयैरपि योधमुख्यैः ॥११- २६॥
amī ca tvāṃ dhṛtarāṣṭrasya putrāḥ sarve sahaivāvanipālasaṃghaiḥ bhīṣmo droṇaḥ sūtaputras tathāsau sahāsmadīyair api yodhamukhyaiḥ 11.26

And all these sons of Dhritarashtra, together with the hosts of kings, and Bhishma, and Drona, and also this Suta's son (Karna), accompanied by even the principal warriors of our side,

वक्त्राणि ते त्वरमाणा विशन्ति : दंष्ट्राकरालानि भयानकानि ।
केचिद्विलग्ना दशनान्तरेषु : संदृश्यन्ते चूर्णितैरुत्तमाङ्गैः ॥११- २७॥
vaktrāṇi te tvaramāṇā viśanti daṃṣṭrākarālāni bhayānakāni kecid vilagnā daśanāntareṣu saṃdṛśyante cūrṇitair uttamāṅgaiḥ 11.27

are quickly entering thy terrible mouths rendered fierce by thy tusks. Some, with their heads crushed, are seen striking at the interstices of (thy) teeth.

यथा नदीनां बहवोऽम्बुवेगाः: समुद्रमेवाभिमुखा द्रवन्ति ।
तथा तवामी नरलोकवीरा : विशन्ति वक्त्राण्यभिविज्वलन्ति ॥११- २८॥
yathā nadīnāṃ bahavombuvegāḥ samudram evābhimukhā dravanti tathā tavāmī naralokavīrā viśanti vaktrāṇy abhivijvalanti 11.28

As many currents of water flowing through different channels roll rapidly towards the ocean, so these heroes of the world of men enter thy mouths that flame all around.

यथा प्रदीप्तं ज्वलनं पतङ्गा: विशन्ति नाशाय समृद्धवेगाः ।
तथैव नाशाय विशन्ति लोका-: स्तवापि वक्त्राणि समृद्धवेगाः ॥११- २९॥
yathā pradīptaṃ jvalanaṃ pataṅgā viśanti nāśāya samṛddhavegāḥ tathaiva nāśāya viśanti lokās tavāpi vaktrāṇi samṛddhavegāḥ 11.29

As moths with increasing speed rush for (their own) destruction to the blazing fire, so also do (these) people, with unceasing speed, enter thy mouths for (their) destruction.

लेलिह्यसे ग्रसमानः समन्ता-: ल्लोकान्समग्रान्वदनैर्ज्वलद्भिः ।
तेजोभिरापूर्य जगत्समग्रं : भासस्तवोग्राः प्रतपन्ति विष्णो ॥११- ३०॥
lelihyase grasamānaḥ samantāl lokān samagrān vadanair jvaladbhiḥ tejobhir āpūrya jagat samagraṃ bhāsas tavogrāḥ pratapanti viṣṇo 11.30

Swallowing all these men from every side, thou lickest them with thy flaming mouths. Filling the whole universe with (thy) energy, thy fierce splendours, O Vishnu, are heating (everything).

आख्याहि मे को भवानुग्ररूपो : नमोऽस्तु ते देववर प्रसीद ।
विज्ञातुमिच्छामि भवन्तमाद्यं : न हि प्रजानामि तव प्रवृत्तिम् ॥११- ३१॥
ākhyāhi me ko bhavān ugrarūpo namostu te devavara prasīda vijñātum icchāmi bhavantam ādyaṃ na hi prajānāmi tava pravṛttim 11.31

Tell me who thou art of (such) fierce form. I bow to thee, O chief of the gods, be gracious to me. I desire to know thee that art the Primeval One, I do not understand thy action.

Section 33
श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,--'

कालोऽस्मि लोकक्षयकृत्प्रवृद्धो लोकान्समाहर्तुमिह प्रवृत्तः ।
ऋतेऽपि त्वां न भविष्यन्ति सर्वे येऽवस्थिताः प्रत्यनीकेषु योधाः ॥११- ३२॥
kālosmi lokakṣayakṛt pravṛddho lokān samāhartum iha pravṛttaḥ ṛtepi tvāṃ na bhaviṣyanti sarve yevasthitāḥ pratyanīkeṣu yodhāḥ 11.32

I am Death, the destroyer of the worlds, fully developed. I am now engaged in slaying the race of men. Without thee all these warriors standing in the different divisions shall cease to be.

तस्मात्त्वमुत्तिष्ठ यशो लभस्व : जित्वा शत्रून् भुङ्क्ष्व राज्यं समृद्धम् ।
मयैवैते निहताः पूर्वमेव : निमित्तमात्रं भव सव्यसाचिन् ॥११- ३३॥
tasmāt tvam uttiṣṭha yaśo labhasva jitvā śatrūn bhuṅkṣva rājyaṃ samṛddham mayaivaite nihatāḥ pūrvam eva nimittamātraṃ bhava savyasācin 11.33

2 Wherefore, arise, gain glory, (and) vanquishing the foe, enjoy (this) swelling kingdom. By me have all these been already slain.

द्रोणं च भीष्मं च जयद्रथं च : कर्णं तथान्यानपि योधवीरान् ।
मया हतांस्त्वं जहि मा व्यथिष्ठा: युध्यस्व जेतासि रणे सपत्नान् ॥११- ३४॥
droṇaṃ ca bhīṣmaṃ ca jayadrathaṃ ca karṇaṃ tathānyān api yodhavīrān mayā hatāṃs tvaṃ jahi mā vyathiṣṭhā yudhyasva jetāsi raṇe sapatnān 11.34

Be only (my) instrument. O thou that can'st draw the bow with (even) the left hand. Drona and Bhishma, and Jayadratha, and Karna, and also other heroic warriors, (already) slain by me, do thou slay. Be not dismayed, fight; thou shalt conquer in battle (thy) foes.

Section 34
संजय उवाच
sañjaya uvāca

Sanjaya continued

एतच्छ्रुत्वा वचनं केशवस्य : कृताञ्जलिर्वेपमानः किरीटी ।
नमस्कृत्वा भूय एवाह कृष्णं : सगद्गदं भीतभीतः प्रणम्य ॥११- ३५॥
etac chrutvā vacanaṃ keśavasya kṛtāñjalir vepamānaḥ kirīṭī namaskṛtvā bhūya evāha kṛṣṇaṃ sagadgadaṃ bhītabhītaḥ praṇamya 11.35

Hearing these words of Kesava, the diadem-decked (Arjuna), trembling, (and) with joined-hands, bowed (unto him); and once more said unto Krishna, with voice choked up and overwhelmed with fear, and making his salutations (to him).--

Section 35
अर्जुन उवाच
arjuna uvāca

Arjuna said,

स्थाने हृषीकेश तव प्रकीर्त्या : जगत्प्रहृष्यत्यनुरज्यते च ।
रक्षांसि भीतानि दिशो द्रवन्ति : सर्वे नमस्यन्ति च सिद्धसंघाः ॥११- ३६॥
arjuna uvāca sthāne hṛṣīkeśa tava prakīrtyā jagat prahṛṣyaty anurajyate ca rakṣāṃsi bhītāni diśo dravanti sarve namasyanti ca siddhasaṃghāḥ 11.36

कस्माच्च ते न नमेरन्महात्मन् : गरीयसे ब्रह्मणोऽप्यादिकर्त्रे ।
अनन्त देवेश जगन्निवास : त्वमक्षरं सदसत्तत्परं यत् ॥११- ३७॥
kasmāc ca te na nameran mahātman garīyase brahmaṇopy ādikartre ananta deveśa jagannivāsa tvam akṣaraṃ sad asat tatparaṃ yat 11.37

त्वमादिदेवः पुरुषः पुराण- : स्त्वमस्य विश्वस्य परं निधानम् ।
वेत्तासि वेद्यं च परं च धाम : त्वया ततं विश्वमनन्तरूप ॥११- ३८॥
tvam ādidevaḥ puruṣaḥ purāṇas tvam asya viśvasya paraṃ nidhānam vettāsi vedyaṃ ca paraṃ ca dhāma tvayā tataṃ viśvam anantarūpa 11.38

वायुर्यमोऽग्निर्वरुणः शशाङ्कः : प्रजापतिस्त्वं प्रपितामहश्च ।
नमो नमस्तेऽस्तु सहस्रकृत्वः : पुनश्च भूयोऽपि नमो नमस्ते ॥११- ३९॥
vāyur yamognir varuṇaḥ śaśāṅkaḥ prajāpatis tvaṃ prapitāmahaś ca namo namas testu sahastrakṛtvaḥ punaś ca bhūyopi namo namas te 11.39

नमः पुरस्तादथ पृष्ठतस्ते : नमोऽस्तु ते सर्वत एव सर्व ।
अनन्तवीर्यामितविक्रमस्त्वं : सर्वं समाप्नोषि ततोऽसि सर्वः ॥११- ४०॥
namaḥ purastād atha pṛṣṭhatas te namostu te sarvata eva sarva anantavīryāmitavikramas tvaṃ sarvaṃ samāpnoṣi tatosi sarvaḥ 11.40

सखेति मत्वा प्रसभं यदुक्तं : हे कृष्ण हे यादव हे सखेति ।
अजानता महिमानं तवेदं : मया प्रमादात्प्रणयेन वापि ॥११- ४१॥
sakheti matvā prasabhaṃ yad uktaṃ he kṛṣṇa he yādava he sakheti ajānatā mahimānaṃ tavedaṃ mayā pramādāt praṇayena vāpi 11.41

यच्चावहासार्थमसत्कृतोऽसि : विहारशय्यासनभोजनेषु ।
एकोऽथवाप्यच्युत तत्समक्षं: तत्क्षामये त्वामहमप्रमेयम् ॥११- ४२॥
yac cāvahāsārtham asatkṛtosi vihāraśayyāsanabhojaneṣu ekothavāpy acyuta tatsamakṣaṃ tat kṣāmaye tvām aham aprameyam 11.42

पितासि लोकस्य चराचरस्य : त्वमस्य पूज्यश्च गुरुर्गरीयान् ।
न त्वत्समोऽस्त्यभ्यधिकः कुतोऽन्यो : लोकत्रयेऽप्यप्रतिमप्रभाव ॥११- ४३॥
pitāsi lokasya carācarasya tvam asya pūjyaś ca gurur garīyān na tvatsamosty abhyadhikaḥ kutonyo lokatrayepy apratimaprabhāva 11.43

तस्मात्प्रणम्य प्रणिधाय कायं : प्रसादये त्वामहमीशमीड्यम् ।
पितेव पुत्रस्य सखेव सख्युः: प्रियः प्रियायार्हसि देव सोढुम् ॥११- ४४॥
tasmāt praṇamya praṇidhāya kāyaṃ prasādaye tvām aham īśam īḍyam piteva putrasya sakheva sakhyuḥ priyaḥ priyāyārhasi deva soḍhum 11.44

अदृष्टपूर्वं हृषितोऽस्मि दृष्ट्वा : भयेन च प्रव्यथितं मनो मे ।
तदेव मे दर्शय देव रूपं : प्रसीद देवेश जगन्निवास ॥११- ४५॥
adṛṣṭapūrvaṃ hṛṣitosmi dṛṣṭvā bhayena ca pravyathitaṃ mano me tad eva me darśaya deva rūpaṃ prasīda deveśa jagannivāsa 11.45

किरीटिनं गदिनं चक्रहस्त- : मिच्छामि त्वां द्रष्टुमहं तथैव ।
तेनैव रूपेण चतुर्भुजेन : सहस्रबाहो भव विश्वमूर्ते ॥११- ४६॥
kirīṭinaṃ gadinaṃ cakrahastaṃ icchāmi tvāṃ draṣṭum ahaṃ tathaiva tenaiva rūpeṇa caturbhujena sahastrabāho bhava viśvamūrte 11.46

It is meet, Hrishikesa, that the universe is delighted and charmed in uttering thy praise, and the Rakshasas flee in fear in all directions, and the hosts of the Siddhas bow down (to thee). And why should they not bow down to thee, O Supreme Soul, that are greater than even Brahman (himself), and the primal cause? O thou that art Infinite. O God of the gods, O thou that art the refuge of the universe, thou art indestructible, thou art that which is, and that which is not and that which is beyond (both). Thou art the First God, the ancient (male) Being, thou art the Supreme refuge of this universe. Thou art the Knower, thou art the Object to be known, thou art the highest abode. By thee is pervaded this universe, O thou of infinite form. 1 Thou art Vayu, Yama, Agni, Varuna, Moon, Prajapati, and Grandsire.

Obeisance be to thee a thousand times, and again and yet again obeisance to thee. Obeisance to thee in front, and also from behind. Let obeisance be to thee from every side, O thou that art all. Thou art all, of energy that is infinite, and prowess that is immeasurable. Thou embracest the All. Regarding (thee) a friend whatever hath been said by me carelessly, such as--O Krishna, O Yadava, O friend,--not knowing this thy greatness from want of judgement or from love either, whatever disrespect hath been shown thee for purpose of mirth, on occasions of play, lying, sitting, (or) at meals, while alone or in the presence of others, O undeteriorating one, I beg thy pardon for it, that art immeasurable.

Thou art the father of this universe of mobiles and immobiles. Thou art the great master deserving of worship. There is none equal to thee, how can there be one greater? O thou whose power is unparalleled in even three worlds? 2 Therefore bowing (to thee) prostrating (my) body, I ask thy grace, O Lord, O adorable one. It behoveth thee. O God, to bear (my faults) as a father (his) son's, a friend (his) friend's, a lover (his) loved one's. Beholding (thy) form (unseen) before, I have been joyful, (yet) my mind hath been troubled, with fear.

Show me that (other ordinary) form, O God. Be gracious, O Lord of the gods, O thou that art the refuge of the universe. (Decked) in diadem, and (armed) with mace, discus in hand, as before, I desire to behold thee. Be of that same four-armed form, O thou of a thousand arms, thou of universal form.

Section 36
श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,--'

मया प्रसन्नेन तवार्जुनेदं : रूपं परं दर्शितमात्मयोगात् ।
तेजोमयं विश्वमनन्तमाद्यं : यन्मे त्वदन्येन न दृष्टपूर्वम् ॥११- ४७॥
mayā prasannena tavārjunedaṃ rūpaṃ paraṃ darśitam ātmayogāt tejomayaṃ viśvam anantam ādyaṃ yan me tvadanyena na dṛṣṭapūrvam 11.47

न वेदयज्ञाध्ययनैर्न दानै- : र्न च क्रियाभिर्न तपोभिरुग्रैः ।
एवंरूपः शक्य अहं नृलोके: द्रष्टुं त्वदन्येन कुरुप्रवीर ॥११- ४८॥
na veda yajñādhyayanair na dānaiḥ na ca kriyābhir na tapobhir ugraiḥ evaṃrūpaḥ śakya ahaṃ nṛloke draṣṭuṃ tvadanyena kurupravīra 11.48

मा ते व्यथा मा च विमूढभावो : दृष्ट्वा रूपं घोरमीदृङ्ममेदम् ।
व्यपेतभीः प्रीतमनाः पुनस्त्वं : तदेव मे रूपमिदं प्रपश्य ॥११- ४९॥
mā te vyathā mā ca vimūḍhabhāvo dṛṣṭvā rūpaṃ ghoram īdṛṅ mamedam vyapetabhīḥ prītamanāḥ punas tvaṃ tad eva me rūpam idaṃ prapaśya 11.49

Pleased with thee, O Arjuna, I have, by my (own) mystic power, shown thee this supreme form, full of glory, Universal, Infinite, Primeval, which hath been seen before by none save thee. Except by thee alone, hero of Kuru's race, I cannot be seen in this form in the world of men by any one else, (aided) even by the study of the Vedas and of sacrifices, by gifts, by actions, (or) by the severest austerities. 3 Let no fear be thine, nor perplexity of mind at seeing this awful form of mine. Freed from fear with a joyful heart, thou again see Me assuming that other form.'

Section 37
संजय उवाच
sañjaya uvāca

Sanjaya continued,--

इत्यर्जुनं वासुदेवस्तथोक्त्वा: स्वकं रूपं दर्शयामास भूयः ।
आश्वासयामास च भीतमेनं : भूत्वा पुनः सौम्यवपुर्महात्मा ॥११- ५०॥
ity arjunaṃ vāsudevas tathoktvā svakaṃ rūpaṃ darśayām āsa bhūyaḥ āśvāsayām āsa ca bhītam enaṃ bhūtvā punaḥ saumyavapur mahātmā 11.50

Vasudeva, having said all this to Arjuna, once more showed (him) his own (ordinary) form, and that High-Souled one, assuming once more (his) gentle form, comforted him who had been afflicted.

Section 38
अर्जुन उवाच
arjuna uvāca

Arjuna said,

दृष्ट्वेदं मानुषं रूपं तव सौम्यं जनार्दन ।
इदानीमस्मि संवृत्तः सचेताः प्रकृतिं गतः ॥११- ५१॥
dṛṣṭvedaṃ mānuṣaṃ rūpaṃ tava saumyaṃ janārdana idānīm asmi saṃvṛttaḥ sacetāḥ prakṛtiṃ gataḥ 11.51

Beholding this gentle human form of thine, O Janardana, I have now become of right mind and have come to my normal state.'

Section 39
श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,--'

सुदुर्दर्शमिदं रूपं दृष्टवानसि यन्मम ।
देवा अप्यस्य रूपस्य नित्यं दर्शनकाङ्क्षिणः ॥११- ५२॥
sudurdarśam idaṃ rūpaṃ dṛṣṭvān asi yan mama devā apy asya rūpasya nityaṃ darśanakāṅkṣiṇaḥ 11.52

This form of mine which thou hast seen is difficult of being seen. Even the gods are always desirous of becoming spectators of this (my) form.

नाहं वेदैर्न तपसा न दानेन न चेज्यया ।
शक्य एवंविधो द्रष्टुं दृष्टवानसि मां यथा ॥११- ५३॥
nāhaṃ vedair na tapasā na dānena na cejyayā śakya evaṃvidho draṣṭuṃ dṛṣṭavān asi māṃ yathā 11.53

Not by the Vedas, nor by austerities, nor by gifts, nor by sacrifices, can I be seen in this form of mine which thou hast seen.

भक्त्या त्वनन्यया शक्य अहमेवंविधोऽर्जुन ।
ज्ञातुं द्रष्टुं च तत्त्वेन प्रवेष्टुं च परंतप ॥११- ५४॥
bhaktyā tv ananyayā śakya aham evaṃvidhorjuna jñātuṃ draṣṭuṃ ca tattvena praveṣṭuṃ ca paraṃtapa 11.54

By reverence, however, that is exclusive (in its objects), O Arjuna, I can in this form be known, seen truly, and attained to, O chastiser of foes.

मत्कर्मकृन्मत्परमो मद्भक्तः सङ्गवर्जितः ।
निर्वैरः सर्वभूतेषु यः स मामेति पाण्डव ॥११- ५५॥
matkarmakṛn matparamo madbhaktaḥ saṅgavarjitaḥ nirvairaḥ sarvabhūteṣu yaḥ sa mām eti pāṇḍava 11.55

He who doth everything for me, who hath me for his supreme object, who is freed from attachment, who is without enmity towards all beings, even he, O Arjuna, cometh to me.'

Chapter 12 भक्तियोगः

Section 40
अर्जुन उवाच
arjuna uvāca

Arjuna said,

एवं सततयुक्ता ये भक्तास्त्वां पर्युपासते ।
ये चाप्यक्षरमव्यक्तं तेषां के योगवित्तमाः ॥१२- १॥
evaṃ satatayuktā ye bhaktās tvāṃ paryupāsate ye cāpy akṣaram avyaktaṃ teṣāṃ ke yogavittamāḥ 12.1

Of those worshippers who, constantly devoted, adore thee, and those who (meditate) on thee as the Immutable and Unmanifest, who are best acquainted with devotion.'

Section 41
श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,

मय्यावेश्य मनो ये मां नित्ययुक्ता उपासते ।
श्रद्धया परयोपेतास्ते मे युक्ततमा मताः ॥१२- २॥
śrībhagavān uvāca mayy āveśya mano ye māṃ nityayuktā upāsate śraddhayā parayopetāḥ te me yuktatamā matāḥ 12.2

ये त्वक्षरमनिर्देश्यमव्यक्तं पर्युपासते ।
सर्वत्रगमचिन्त्यं च कूटस्थमचलं ध्रुवम् ॥१२- ३॥
ye tv akṣaram anirdeśyaṃ avyaktaṃ paryupāsate sarvatragam acintyaṃ ca kūṭasthaṃ acalaṃ dhruvam 12.3

संनियम्येन्द्रियग्रामं सर्वत्र समबुद्धयः ।
ते प्राप्नुवन्ति मामेव सर्वभूतहिते रताः ॥१२- ४॥
saṃniyamyendriyagrāmaṃ sarvatra samabuddhayāḥ te prāpnuvanti mām eva sarvabhūtahite ratāḥ 12.4

क्लेशोऽधिकतरस्तेषामव्यक्तासक्तचेतसाम् ।
अव्यक्ता हि गतिर्दुःखं देहवद्भिरवाप्यते ॥१२- ५॥
kleśodhikataras teṣāṃ avyaktāsaktacetasām avyaktā hi gatir duḥkhaṃ dehavadbhir avāpyate 12.5

ये तु सर्वाणि कर्माणि मयि संन्यस्य मत्पराः ।
अनन्येनैव योगेन मां ध्यायन्त उपासते ॥१२- ६॥
ye tu sarvāṇi karmāṇi mayi saṃnyasya matparaḥ ananyenaiva yogena māṃ dhyāyanta upāsate 12.6

तेषामहं समुद्धर्ता मृत्युसंसारसागरात् ।
भवामि नचिरात्पार्थ मय्यावेशितचेतसाम् ॥१२- ७॥
teṣāṃ ahaṃ samuddhartā mṛtyusaṃsārasāgarāt bhavāmi na cirāt pārtha mayy āveśitacetasām 12.7

मय्येव मन आधत्स्व मयि बुद्धिं निवेशय ।
निवसिष्यसि मय्येव अत ऊर्ध्वं न संशयः ॥१२- ८॥
mayy eva mana ādhatsva mayi buddhiṃ niveśaya nivasiṣyasi mayy eva ata ūrdhvaṃ na saṃśayaḥ 12.8

अथ चित्तं समाधातुं न शक्नोषि मयि स्थिरम् ।
अभ्यासयोगेन ततो मामिच्छाप्तुं धनंजय ॥१२- ९॥
atha cittaṃ samādhātuṃ na śaknoṣi mayi sthiram abhyāsayogena tato mām ichāptuṃ dhanaṃjaya 12.9

अभ्यासेऽप्यसमर्थोऽसि मत्कर्मपरमो भव ।
मदर्थमपि कर्माणि कुर्वन्सिद्धिमवाप्स्यसि ॥१२- १०॥
abhyāsepy asamarthosi matkarmaparamo bhava madartham api karmāṇi kurvan siddhim avāpsyasi 12.10

अथैतदप्यशक्तोऽसि कर्तुं मद्योगमाश्रितः ।
सर्वकर्मफलत्यागं ततः कुरु यतात्मवान् ॥१२- ११॥
athaitad apy aśaktosi kartuṃ madyogam āśritaḥ sarvakarmaphalatyāgaṃ tataḥ kuru yatātmavān 12.11

  1. 'Fixing (their) mind on me, they that constantly adore me, being endued (besides) with the highest faith, are deemed by me to be the most devoted.
  2. They, however, who worship the Immutable, the Unmanifest, the All-pervading, the Inconceivable, the Indifferent, the Immutable, the Eternal, who, restraining the entire group of the senses, are equal-minded in respect of all around and are engaged in the good of all creatures, (also) attain to me.
  3. The trouble is the greater for those whose minds are fixed on the Unmanifest; for the path to the Unmanifest is hard to find by those that are embodied.
  4. They (again) who, reposing all action on me (and) regarding me as their highest object (of attainment), worship me, meditating on me with devotion undirected to anything else, of them whose minds are (thus) fixed on me, I, without delay, become the deliverer from the ocean of (this) mortal world.
  5. Fix thy heart on me alone, place thy understanding on me, Hereafter then shalt thou dwell in me. (There is) no doubt (in this).
  6. If however, thou art unable to fix thy heart steadily on me, then, O Dhananjaya, strive to obtain me by devotion (arising) from continuous application.
  7. If thou beest unequal to even (this) continuous application, then let actions performed for me be thy highest aim. Even performing all thy acts for my sake, thou wilt obtain perfection.
  8. If even this thou art unable to do, then resorting to devotion in me, (and) subduing thy soul, abandon the fruit of all actions.

श्रेयो हि ज्ञानमभ्यासाज्ज्ञानाद्ध्यानं विशिष्यते ।
ध्यानात्कर्मफलत्यागस्त्यागाच्छान्तिरनन्तरम् ॥१२- १२॥
śreyo hi jñānam abhyāsāj jñānād dhyānaṃ viśiṣyate dhyānāt karmaphalatyāgas tyāgāc chāntir anantaram 12.12

अद्वेष्टा सर्वभूतानां मैत्रः करुण एव च ।
निर्ममो निरहंकारः समदुःखसुखः क्षमी ॥१२- १३॥
adveṣṭā sarvabhūtānāṃ maitraḥ karuṇa eva ca nirmamo nirahaṃkāraḥ samaduḥkhasukhaḥ kṣamī 12.13

संतुष्टः सततं योगी यतात्मा दृढनिश्चयः ।
मय्यर्पितमनोबुद्धिर्यो मद्भक्तः स मे प्रियः ॥१२- १४॥
saṃtuṣṭaḥ satataṃ yogī yatātmā dṛḍhaniścayaḥ mayy arpitamanobuddhir yo madbhaktaḥ sa me priyaḥ 12.14

यस्मान्नोद्विजते लोको लोकान्नोद्विजते च यः ।
हर्षामर्षभयोद्वेगैर्मुक्तो यः स च मे प्रियः ॥१२- १५॥
yasmān nodvijate loko lokān nodvijate ca yaḥ harṣāmarṣabhayodvegair mukto yaḥ sa ca me priyaḥ 12.15

अनपेक्षः शुचिर्दक्ष उदासीनो गतव्यथः ।
सर्वारम्भपरित्यागी यो मद्भक्तः स मे प्रियः ॥१२- १६॥
anapekṣaḥ śucir dakṣa udāsīno gatavyathaḥ sarvārambhaparityāgī yo madbhaktaḥ sa me priyaḥ 12.16

यो न हृष्यति न द्वेष्टि न शोचति न काङ्क्षति ।
शुभाशुभपरित्यागी भक्तिमान्यः स मे प्रियः ॥१२- १७॥
yo na hṛṣyati na dveṣṭi na śocati na kāṅkṣati śubhāśubhaparityāgī bhaktimān yaḥ sa me priyaḥ 12.17

समः शत्रौ च मित्रे च तथा मानापमानयोः ।
शीतोष्णसुखदुःखेषु समः सङ्गविवर्जितः ॥१२- १८॥
samaḥ śatrau ca mitre ca tathā mānāpamānayoḥ śītoṣṇasukhaduḥkheṣu samaḥ saṅgavivarjitaḥ 12.18

तुल्यनिन्दास्तुतिर्मौनी सन्तुष्टो येन केनचित् ।
अनिकेतः स्थिरमतिर्भक्तिमान्मे प्रियो नरः ॥१२- १९॥
tulyanindāstutir maunī saṃtuṣṭo yena kenacit aniketaḥ sthiramatir bhaktimān me priyo naraḥ 12.19

ये तु धर्म्यामृतमिदं यथोक्तं पर्युपासते ।
श्रद्दधाना मत्परमा भक्तास्तेऽतीव मे प्रियाः ॥१२- २०॥
ye tu dharmyāmṛtam idaṃ yathoktaṃ paryupāsate śraddadhānā matparamā bhaktās tetīva me priyāḥ 12.20

  1. Knowledge is superior to application (in devotion); meditation is better than knowledge; the abandonment of the fruit of reaction (is better) than meditation, and tranquillity (results) immediately from abandonment.
  2. He who hath no hatred for any creature, who is friendly and compassionate also, who is free from egoism, who hath no vanity, attachment, who is alike in pleasure and pain, who is forgiving, contented, always devoted, of subdued, soul, firm of purpose, with heart and understanding fixed on me, even he is dear to me.
  3. He through whom the world is not troubled, (and) who is not troubled by the world, who is free from joy, wrath, fear and anxieties, even he is dear to me.
  4. That devotee of mine who is unconcerned, pure, diligent, unconnected (with worldly objects), and free from distress (of mind), and who renounceth every action (for fruit), even he is dear to me.
  5. He who hath no joy, no aversion, who neither grieveth nor desireth, who renounceth both good and evil, (and) who is full of faith in me, even he is dear to me.
  6. He who is alike to friend and foe, as also in honour and dishonour, who is alike in cold and heat, (and pleasure and pain), who is free from attachment, to whom censure and praise are equal, who is taciturn, who is contented with anything that cometh (to him), who is homeless, of steady mind and full of faith, even that man is dear to me.
  7. They who resort to this righteousness (leading to) immortality which hath been (already) declared,--those devotees full of faith and regarding me as the highest object (of their acquisition) are the dearest to me.'

Chapter 13 क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञविभागयोगः

श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,

इदं शरीरं कौन्तेय क्षेत्रमित्यभिधीयते ।
एतद्यो वेत्ति तं प्राहुः क्षेत्रज्ञ इति तद्विदः ॥१३- १॥
idaṃ śarīraṃ kaunteya kṣetram ity abhidhīyate etad yo vetti taṃ prāhuḥ kṣetrajña iti tadvidaḥ 13.2

This body, O son of Kunti, is called Kshetra. Him who knoweth it, the learned call Kshetrajna.

क्षेत्रज्ञं चापि मां विद्धि सर्वक्षेत्रेषु भारत ।
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोर्ज्ञानं यत्तज्ज्ञानं मतं मम ॥१३- २॥
kṣetrajñaṃ cāpi māṃ viddhi sarvakṣetreṣu bhārata kṣetrakṣetrajñayor jñānaṃ yat taj jñānaṃ mataṃ mama 13.3

Know me, O Bharata, to be Kshetras. The knowledge of Kshetra and Kshetrajna I regard to be (true) knowledge.

तत्क्षेत्रं यच्च यादृक्च यद्विकारि यतश्च यत् ।
स च यो यत्प्रभावश्च तत्समासेन मे शृणु ॥१३- ३॥
tat kṣetraṃ yac ca yādṛk ca yadvikāri yataś ca yat sa ca yo yatprabhāvaś ca tat samāsena me śṛṇu 13.4

What that Kshetra (is), and what (it is) like, and what changes it undergoes, and whence (it comes), what is he (viz., Kshetrajna), and what his powers are, hear from me in brief.

ऋषिभिर्बहुधा गीतं छन्दोभिर्विविधैः पृथक् ।
ब्रह्मसूत्रपदैश्चैव हेतुमद्भिर्विनिश्चितैः ॥१३- ४॥
ṛṣibhir bahudhā gītaṃ chandobhir vividhaiḥ pṛthak brahmasūtrapadaiś caiva hetumadbhir viniścitaiḥ 13.5

All this hath in many ways been sung separately, by Rishis in various verses, in well-settled texts fraught with reason and giving indications of Brahman.

महाभूतान्यहंकारो बुद्धिरव्यक्तमेव च ।
इन्द्रियाणि दशैकं च पञ्च चेन्द्रियगोचराः ॥१३- ५॥
mahābhūtāny ahaṃkāro buddhir avyaktam eva ca indriyāṇi daśaikaṃ ca pañca cendriyagocarāḥ 13.6

इच्छा द्वेषः सुखं दुःखं संघातश्चेतना धृतिः ।
एतत्क्षेत्रं समासेन सविकारमुदाहृतम् ॥१३- ६॥
icchā dveṣaḥ sukhaṃ duḥkhaṃ saṃghātaś cetanā dhṛtiḥ etat kṣetraṃ samāsena savikāram udāhṛtam 13.7

अमानित्वमदम्भित्वमहिंसा क्षान्तिरार्जवम् ।
आचार्योपासनं शौचं स्थैर्यमात्मविनिग्रहः ॥१३- ७॥
amānitvam adambhitvam ahiṃsā kṣāntir ārjavam ācāryopāsanaṃ śaucaṃ sthairyam ātmavinigrahaḥ 13.8

इन्द्रियार्थेषु वैराग्यमनहंकार एव च ।
जन्ममृत्युजराव्याधिदुःखदोषानुदर्शनम् ॥१३- ८॥
indriyārtheṣu vairāgyam anahaṃkāra eva ca janmamṛtyujarāvyādhiduḥkhadoṣānudarśanam 13.9

असक्तिरनभिष्वङ्गः पुत्रदारगृहादिषु ।
नित्यं च समचित्तत्वमिष्टानिष्टोपपत्तिषु ॥१३- ९॥
asaktir anabhiṣvaṅgaḥ putradāragṛhādiṣu nityaṃ ca samacittatvam iṣṭāniṣṭopapattiṣu 13.10

मयि चानन्ययोगेन भक्तिरव्यभिचारिणी ।
विविक्तदेशसेवित्वमरतिर्जनसंसदि ॥१३- १०॥
mayi cānanyayogena bhaktir avyabhicāriṇī viviktadeśasevitvam aratir janasaṃsadi 13.11

अध्यात्मज्ञाननित्यत्वं तत्त्वज्ञानार्थदर्शनम् ।
एतज्ज्ञानमिति प्रोक्तमज्ञानं यदतोऽन्यथा ॥१३- ११॥
adhyātmajñānanityatvaṃ tattvajñānārthadarśanam etaj jñānam iti proktam ajñānaṃ yad atonyathā 13.12

ज्ञेयं यत्तत्प्रवक्ष्यामि यज्ज्ञात्वामृतमश्नुते ।
अनादि मत्परं ब्रह्म न सत्तन्नासदुच्यते ॥१३- १२॥
jñeyaṃ yat tat pravakṣyāmi yaj jñātvāmṛtam aśnute anādimat paraṃ brahma na sat tan nāsad ucyate 13.13

सर्वतः पाणिपादं तत्सर्वतोऽक्षिशिरोमुखम् ।
सर्वतः श्रुतिमल्लोके सर्वमावृत्य तिष्ठति ॥१३- १३॥
sarvataḥ pāṇipādaṃ tat sarvatokṣiśiromukham sarvataḥ śrutimal loke sarvam āvṛtya tiṣṭhati 13.14

सर्वेन्द्रियगुणाभासं सर्वेन्द्रियविवर्जितम् ।
असक्तं सर्वभृच्चैव निर्गुणं गुणभोक्तृ च ॥१३- १४॥
sarvendriyaguṇābhāsaṃ sarvendriyavivarjitam asaktaṃ sarvabhṛc caiva nirguṇaṃ guṇabhoktṛ ca 13.15

बहिरन्तश्च भूतानामचरं चरमेव च ।
सूक्ष्मत्वात्तदविज्ञेयं दूरस्थं चान्तिके च तत् ॥१३- १५॥
bahir antaś ca bhūtānām acaraṃ caram eva ca sūkṣmatvāt tad avijñeyaṃ dūrasthaṃ cāntike ca tat 13.16

अविभक्तं च भूतेषु विभक्तमिव च स्थितम् ।
भूतभर्तृ च तज्ज्ञेयं ग्रसिष्णु प्रभविष्णु च ॥१३- १६॥
avibhaktaṃ ca bhūteṣu vibhaktam iva ca sthitam bhūtabhartṛ ca taj jñeyaṃ grasiṣṇu prabhaviṣṇu ca 13.17

ज्योतिषामपि तज्ज्योतिस्तमसः परमुच्यते ।
ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं ज्ञानगम्यं हृदि सर्वस्य विष्ठितम् ॥१३- १७॥
jyotiṣām api taj jyotis tamasaḥ param ucyate jñānaṃ jñeyaṃ jñānagamyaṃ hṛdi sarvasya viṣṭhitam 13.18

इति क्षेत्रं तथा ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं चोक्तं समासतः ।
मद्भक्त एतद्विज्ञाय मद्भावायोपपद्यते ॥१३- १८॥
iti kṣetraṃ tathā jñānaṃ jñeyaṃ coktaṃ sanāsataḥ madbhakta etad vijñāya madbhāvāyopapadyate 13.19

The great elements, egoism, intellect, the unmanifest (viz., Prakriti), also the ten senses, the one (manas), the five objects of sense, desire, aversion, pleasure, pain, body consciousness, courage,--all this in brief hath been declared to be Kshetra in its modified form. Absence of vanity, absence of ostentation, abstention from injury, forgiveness, uprightness, devotion to preceptor, purity, constancy, self-restraint, indifference to objects of sense, absence of egoism, perception of the misery and evil of birth, death, decrepitude and disease, freedom from attachment, absence of sympathy for son, wife, home, and the rest, and constant equanimity of heart on attainment of good and evil, unswerving devotion to me without meditation on anything else, frequenting of lonely places, distaste for concourse of men, constancy in the knowledge of the relation of the individual self to the supreme, perception of the object of the knowledge of truth,--all this is called Knowledge; all that which is contrary to this is Ignorance. That which is the object of knowledge I will (now) declare (to thee), knowing which one obtaineth immortality. [It is] the Supreme Brahma having no beginning, who is said to be neither existent nor non-existent; whose hands and feet are on all sides, whose eyes, heads and faces are on all sides, who dwells pervading everything in the world, who is possessed of all the qualities of the senses (though) devoid of the senses, without attachment (yet) sustaining all things, without attributes (yet) enjoying (a) all attributes, 3 without and within all creatures, immobile and mobile, not knowable because of (his) subtlety, remote yet near, undistributed in all beings, (yet) remaining as if distributed, who is the sustainer of (all) beings, the absorber and the creator (of all); who is the light of all luminous bodies, who is said to be beyond all darkness; who is knowledge, the Object of knowledge, the End of knowledge and seated in the hearts of all. Thus Kshetra, and Knowledge, and the Object of Knowledge, have been declared (to thee) in brief.

प्रकृतिं पुरुषं चैव विद्ध्यनादी उभावपि ।
विकारांश्च गुणांश्चैव विद्धि प्रकृतिसंभवान् ॥१३- १९॥
prakṛtiṃ puruṣaṃ caiva viddhy anādi ubhāv api vikārāñś ca guṇāṃś caiva viddhi prakṛtisaṃbhavān 13.20

कार्यकरणकर्तृत्वे हेतुः प्रकृतिरुच्यते ।
पुरुषः सुखदुःखानां भोक्तृत्वे हेतुरुच्यते ॥१३- २०॥
kārya kāraṇa kartṛtve hetuḥ prakṛtir ucyate puruṣaḥ sukhaduḥkhānāṃ bhoktṛtve hetur ucyate 13.21

पुरुषः प्रकृतिस्थो हि भुङ्क्ते प्रकृतिजान्गुणान् ।
कारणं गुणसङ्गोऽस्य सदसद्योनिजन्मसु ॥१३- २१॥
puruṣaḥ prakṛtistho hi bhuṅkte prakṛtijān guṇān kāraṇaṃ guṇasaṅgosya sadasadyonijanmasu 13.22

उपद्रष्टानुमन्ता च भर्ता भोक्ता महेश्वरः ।
परमात्मेति चाप्युक्तो देहेऽस्मिन्पुरुषः परः ॥१३- २२॥
upadraṣṭānumantā ca bhartā bhoktā maheśvaraḥ paramātmeti cāpyukto dehesmin puruṣaḥ paraḥ 13.23

य एवं वेत्ति पुरुषं प्रकृतिं च गुणैः सह ।
सर्वथा वर्तमानोऽपि न स भूयोऽभिजायते ॥१३- २३॥
ya evaṃ vetti puruṣaṃ prakṛtiṃ ca guṇaiḥ saha sarvathā vartamānopi na sa bhūyobhijāyate 13.24

ध्यानेनात्मनि पश्यन्ति केचिदात्मानमात्मना ।
अन्ये सांख्येन योगेन कर्मयोगेन चापरे ॥१३- २४॥
dhyānenātmani paśyanti kecid ātmānam ātmanā anye sāṃkhyena yogena karmayogena cāpare 13.25

अन्ये त्वेवमजानन्तः श्रुत्वान्येभ्य उपासते ।
तेऽपि चातितरन्त्येव मृत्युं श्रुतिपरायणाः ॥१३- २५॥
anye tv evam ajānantaḥ śrutvānyebhya upāsate tepi cātitaranty eva mṛtyuṃ śrutiparāyaṇāḥ 13.26

यावत्संजायते किंचित्सत्त्वं स्थावरजङ्गमम् ।
क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञसंयोगात्तद्विद्धि भरतर्षभ ॥१३- २६॥
yāvat saṃjāyate kiṃcit sattvaṃ sthāvarajaṅgamam kṣetrakṣetrajñasaṃyogāt tad viddhi bharatarṣabha 13.27

समं सर्वेषु भूतेषु तिष्ठन्तं परमेश्वरम् ।
विनश्यत्स्वविनश्यन्तं यः पश्यति स पश्यति ॥१३- २७॥
samaṃ sarveṣu bhūteṣu tiṣṭhantaṃ parameśvaram vinaśyatsv avinaśyantaṃ yaḥ paśyati sa paśyati 13.28

समं पश्यन्हि सर्वत्र समवस्थितमीश्वरम् ।
न हिनस्त्यात्मनात्मानं ततो याति परां गतिम् ॥१३- २८॥
samaṃ paśyan hi sarvatra samavasthitam īśvaram na hinasty ātmanātmānaṃ tato yāti parāṃ gatim 13.29

प्रकृत्यैव च कर्माणि क्रियमाणानि सर्वशः ।
यः पश्यति तथात्मानमकर्तारं स पश्यति ॥१३- २९॥
prakṛtyaiva ca karmāṇi kriyamāṇāni sarvaśaḥ yaḥ paśyati tathātmānam akartāraṃ sa paśyati 13.30

यदा भूतपृथग्भावमेकस्थमनुपश्यति ।
तत एव च विस्तारं ब्रह्म संपद्यते तदा ॥१३- ३०॥
yadā bhūtapṛthagbhāvam ekastham anupaśyati tata eva ca vistāraṃ brahma saṃpadyate tadā 13.31

अनादित्वान्निर्गुणत्वात्परमात्मायमव्ययः ।
शरीरस्थोऽपि कौन्तेय न करोति न लिप्यते ॥१३- ३१॥
anāditvān nirguṇatvāt paramātmāyam avyayaḥ śarīrasthopi kaunteya na karoti na lipyate 13.32

यथा सर्वगतं सौक्ष्म्यादाकाशं नोपलिप्यते ।
सर्वत्रावस्थितो देहे तथात्मा नोपलिप्यते ॥१३- ३२॥
yathā sarvagataṃ saukṣmyād ākāśaṃ nopalipyate sarvatrāvasthito dehe tathātmā nopalipyate 13.33

यथा प्रकाशयत्येकः कृत्स्नं लोकमिमं रविः ।
क्षेत्रं क्षेत्री तथा कृत्स्नं प्रकाशयति भारत ॥१३- ३३॥
yathā prakāśayaty ekaḥ kṛtsnaṃ lokam imaṃ raviḥ kṣetraṃ kṣetrī tathā kṛtsnaṃ prakāśayati bhārata 13.34

क्षेत्रक्षेत्रज्ञयोरेवमन्तरं ज्ञानचक्षुषा ।
भूतप्रकृतिमोक्षं च ये विदुर्यान्ति ते परम् ॥१३- ३४॥
kṣetrakṣetrajñayor evam antaraṃ jñānacakṣuṣā bhūtaprakṛtimokṣaṃ ca ye vidur yānti te param 13.35

My devotee, knowing (all) this, becomes one in spirit with me. Know that Nature and Spirit are both without beginning (and) know (also) that all modifications and all qualities spring from Nature. Nature is said to be the source of the capacity of enjoying pleasures and pains. For Spirit, dwelling in nature enjoyeth the qualities born of Nature. The cause of its births in good or evil wombs is (its) connection with the qualities. 6 The Supreme Purusha in this body is said to be surveyor, approver, supporter, enjoyer, the mighty lord, and also the Supreme Soul. 1 He who thus knows Spirit, and Nature, with the qualities, in whatever state he may be, is never born again. Some by meditation behold the self in the self by the self; others by devotion according to the Sankhya system; and others (again), by devotion through works. Others yet not knowing this, worship, hearing of it from others. Even these, devoted to what is heard, cross over death. 2 Whatever entity, immobile or mobile, cometh into existence, know that, O bull of Bharata's race, to be from the connection of Kshetra and Kshetrajna (matter and spirit). He seeth the Supreme Lord dwelling alike in all beings, the Imperishable in the Perishable. For seeing the Lord dwelling alike everywhere, one doth not destroy 3 himself by himself, and then reacheth the highest goal. He seeth (truly) who seeth all actions to be wrought by nature alone in every way and the self likewise to be not the doer. When one seeth the diversity of entities as existing in one, and the issue (everything) from that (One), then is one said to attain to Brahma. This inexhaustible Supreme Self, O son of Kunti, being without beginning and without attributes, doth not act, nor is stained even when stationed in the body. As space, which is ubiquitous, is never, in consequence of its subtlety tainted, so the soul, stationed in every body, is never tainted. 4 As the single Sun lights up the entire world, so the Spirit, O Bharata, lights up the entire (sphere of) matters. They that, by the eye of knowledge, know the distinction between matter and spirit, and the deliverance from the nature of all entities, attain to the Supreme

Chapter 14 गुणत्रयविभागयोगः

श्रीभगवानुवाच

The Holy One said,

परं भूयः प्रवक्ष्यामि ज्ञानानां ज्ञानमुत्तमम् ।
यज्ज्ञात्वा मुनयः सर्वे परां सिद्धिमितो गताः ॥१४- १॥
śrībhagavān uvāca paraṃ bhūyaḥ pravakṣyāmi jñānānāṃ jñānam uttamam yaj jñātvā munayaḥ sarve parāṃ siddhim ito gatāḥ 14.1

इदं ज्ञानमुपाश्रित्य मम साधर्म्यमागताः ।
सर्गेऽपि नोपजायन्ते प्रलये न व्यथन्ति च ॥१४- २॥
idaṃ jñānam upāśritya mama sādharmyam āgatāḥ sargepi nopajāyante pralaye na vyathanti ca 14.2

मम योनिर्महद्ब्रह्म तस्मिन्गर्भं दधाम्यहम् ।
संभवः सर्वभूतानां ततो भवति भारत ॥१४- ३॥
mama yonir mahad brahma tasmin garbhaṃ dadhāmyaham saṃbhavaḥ sarvabhūtānāṃ tato bhavati bhārata 14.3

सर्वयोनिषु कौन्तेय मूर्तयः संभवन्ति याः ।
तासां ब्रह्म महद्योनिरहं बीजप्रदः पिता ॥१४- ४॥
sarvayoniṣu kaunteya mūrtayaḥ saṃbhavanti yāḥ tāsāṃ brahma mahad yonir ahaṃ bījapradaḥ pitā 14.4

सत्त्वं रजस्तम इति गुणाः प्रकृतिसंभवाः ।
निबध्नन्ति महाबाहो देहे देहिनमव्ययम् ॥१४- ५॥
sattvaṃ rajas tama iti guṇāḥ prakṛtisambhavāḥ nibadhnanti mahābāho dehe dehinam avyayam 14.5

तत्र सत्त्वं निर्मलत्वात्प्रकाशकमनामयम् ।
सुखसङ्गेन बध्नाति ज्ञानसङ्गेन चानघ ॥१४- ६॥
tatra sattvaṃ nirmalatvāt prakāśakam anāmayam sukhasaṅgena badhnāti jñānasaṅgena cānagha 14.6

रजो रागात्मकं विद्धि तृष्णासङ्गसमुद्भवम् ।
तन्निबध्नाति कौन्तेय कर्मसङ्गेन देहिनम् ॥१४- ७॥
rajo rāgātmakaṃ viddhi tṛṣṇāsaṅgasamudbhavam tan nibadhnāti kaunteya karmasaṅgena dehinam 14.7

तमस्त्वज्ञानजं विद्धि मोहनं सर्वदेहिनाम् ।
प्रमादालस्यनिद्राभिस्तन्निबध्नाति भारत ॥१४- ८॥
tamas tv ajñānajaṃ viddhi mohanaṃ sarvadehinām pramādālasyanidrābhis tan nibadhnāti bhārata 14.8

सत्त्वं सुखे संजयति रजः कर्मणि भारत ।
ज्ञानमावृत्य तु तमः प्रमादे संजयत्युत ॥१४- ९॥
sattvaṃ sukhe saṃjayati rajaḥ karmaṇi bhārata jñānam āvṛtya tu tamaḥ pramāde saṃjayaty uta 14.9

रजस्तमश्चाभिभूय सत्त्वं भवति भारत ।
रजः सत्त्वं तमश्चैव तमः सत्त्वं रजस्तथा ॥१४- १०॥
rajas tamaś cābhibhūya sattvaṃ bhavati bhārata rajaḥ sattvaṃ tamaś caiva tamaḥ sattvaṃ rajas tathā 14.10

सर्वद्वारेषु देहेऽस्मिन्प्रकाश उपजायते ।
ज्ञानं यदा तदा विद्याद्विवृद्धं सत्त्वमित्युत ॥१४- ११॥
sarvadvāreṣu dehesmin prakāśa upajāyate jñānaṃ yadā tadā vidyād vivṛddhaṃ sattvam ity uta 14.11

लोभः प्रवृत्तिरारम्भः कर्मणामशमः स्पृहा ।
रजस्येतानि जायन्ते विवृद्धे भरतर्षभ ॥१४- १२॥
lobhaḥ pravṛttir ārambhaḥ karmaṇām aśamaḥ spṛhā rajasy etāni jāyante vivṛddhe bharatarṣabha 14.12

अप्रकाशोऽप्रवृत्तिश्च प्रमादो मोह एव च ।
तमस्येतानि जायन्ते विवृद्धे कुरुनन्दन ॥१४- १३॥
aprakāśopravṛttiś ca pramādo moha eva ca tamasy etāni jāyante vivṛddhe kurunandana 14.13

यदा सत्त्वे प्रवृद्धे तु प्रलयं याति देहभृत् ।
तदोत्तमविदां लोकानमलान्प्रतिपद्यते ॥१४- १४॥
yadā sattve pravṛddhe tu pralayaṃ yāti dehabhṛt tadottamavidāṃ lokān amalān pratipadyate 14.14

रजसि प्रलयं गत्वा कर्मसङ्गिषु जायते ।
तथा प्रलीनस्तमसि मूढयोनिषु जायते ॥१४- १५॥
rajasi pralayaṃ gatvā karmasaṅgiṣu jāyate tathā pralīnas tamasi mūḍhayoniṣu jāyate 14.15

कर्मणः सुकृतस्याहुः सात्त्विकं निर्मलं फलम् ।
रजसस्तु फलं दुःखमज्ञानं तमसः फलम् ॥१४- १६॥
karmaṇaḥ sukṛtasyāhuḥ sāttvikaṃ nirmalaṃ phalam rajasas tu phalaṃ duḥkham ajñānaṃ tamasaḥ phalam 14.16

सत्त्वात्संजायते ज्ञानं रजसो लोभ एव च ।
प्रमादमोहौ तमसो भवतोऽज्ञानमेव च ॥१४- १७॥
sattvāt saṃjāyate jñānaṃ rajaso lobha eva ca pramādamohau tamaso bhavatojñānam eva ca 14.17

ऊर्ध्वं गच्छन्ति सत्त्वस्था मध्ये तिष्ठन्ति राजसाः ।
जघन्यगुणवृत्तिस्था अधो गच्छन्ति तामसाः ॥१४- १८॥
ūrdhvaṃ gacchanti sattvasthā madhye tiṣṭhanti rājasāḥ jaghanyaguṇavṛttisthā adho gacchhanti tāmasāḥ 14.18

नान्यं गुणेभ्यः कर्तारं यदा द्रष्टानुपश्यति ।
गुणेभ्यश्च परं वेत्ति मद्भावं सोऽधिगच्छति ॥१४- १९॥
nānyaṃ guṇebhyaḥ kartāraṃ yadā draṣṭānupaśyati guṇebhyaś ca paraṃ vetti madbhāvaṃ sodhigacchhati 14.19

गुणानेतानतीत्य त्रीन्देही देहसमुद्भवान् ।
जन्ममृत्युजरादुःखैर्विमुक्तोऽमृतमश्नुते ॥१४- २०॥
guṇān etān atītya trīn dehī dehasamudbhavān janmamṛtyujarāduḥkhair vimuktomṛtam aśnute 14.20

I will again declare (to thee) that supernal science of sciences, that excellent science, knowing which all the munis have attained to the highest perfection from (the fetters of) this body. Resorting to this science, and attaining to my nature, they are not reborn even on (the occasion of) a (new) creation and are not disturbed at the universal dissolution. The mighty Brahma is a womb for me. Therein I place the (living) germ. Thence, O Bharata, the birth of all beings taketh place. Whatever (bodily) forms, O son of Kunti, are born in all wombs, of them Brahma is the mighty womb, (and) I the seed-imparting Sire. 1 Goodness, passion, darkness, these qualities, born of nature, bind down, O thou of mighty arms, the eternal embodied [soul] in the body. 2 Amongst these, Goodness, from its unsullied nature, being enlightening and free from misery, bindeth (the soul), O sinless one, with the attainment of happiness and of knowledge. Know that passion, having desire for its essence, is born of thirst and attachment. That, O son of Kunti, bindeth the embodied (soul) by the attachment of work. Darkness, however, know, is born of ignorance, (and) bewilders all embodied [soul]. That bindeth, O Bharata, by error, indolence, and sleep. Goodness uniteth (the soul) with pleasure; Passion, O Bharata, uniteth with work; but darkness, veiling knowledge, uniteth with error. Passion and darkness, being repressed, Goodness remaineth, O Bharata. Passion and goodness (being repressed), darkness (remaineth); (and) darkness and goodness (being repressed), passion (remaineth). When in this body, in all its gates, the light of knowledge is produced, then should one know that goodness hath been developed there. Avarice, activity, performance of works, want of tranquillity, desire,--these, O bull of Bharata's race, are born when passion is developed. Gloom, inactivity, error, and delusion also,--these, O son of Kuru's race, are born when darkness is developed. When the holder of a body goeth to dissolution while goodness is developed, then he attaineth to the spotless regions of those that know the Supreme. Going to dissolution when passion prevails, one is born among those that are attached to work. Likewise, dissolved during darkness, one is born in wombs that beget the ignorant. The fruit of good action is said to be good and untainted. The fruit, however, of passion, is misery; (and) the fruit of Darkness is ignorance. From goodness is produced knowledge; from passion, avarice; (and) from darkness are error and delusion, and also ignorance. They that dwell in goodness go on high; they that are addicted to passion dwell in the middle; (while) they that are of darkness, being addicted to the lowest quality, go down. When an observer recognises none else to be an agent save the qualities, and knows that which is beyond (the qualities), he attaineth to my nature. The embodied [soul], by transcending these three qualities which constitute the source of all bodies, enjoyeth immortality, being freed from birth, death, decrepitude, and misery.' 1

Section 42
अर्जुन उवाच
arjuna uvāca

Arjuna said,

कैर्लिङ्गैस्त्रीन्गुणानेतानतीतो भवति प्रभो ।
किमाचारः कथं चैतांस्त्रीन्गुणानतिवर्तते ॥१४- २१॥
kair liṅgais trīn guṇān etān atīto bhavati prabho kimācāraḥ kathaṃ caitāṃs trīn guṇān ativartate 14.21

What are indications, O Lord, of one who hath transcended these three qualities? What is his conduct? How also doth one transcend these three qualities?

Section 43
श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,

प्रकाशं च प्रवृत्तिं च मोहमेव च पाण्डव
न द्वेष्टि संप्रवृत्तानि न निवृत्तानि काङ्क्षति ॥१४- २२॥
prakāśaṃ ca pravṛttiṃ ca moham eva ca pāṇḍava ta dveṣṭi saṃpravṛttāni na nivṛttāni kāṅkṣati 14.22

उदासीनवदासीनो गुणैर्यो न विचाल्यते
गुणा वर्तन्त इत्येव योऽवतिष्ठति नेङ्गते ॥१४- २३॥
udāsīnavad āsīno guṇair yo na vicālyate guṇā vartanta ity eva yovatiṣṭhati neṅgate 14.23

समदुःखसुखः स्वस्थः समलोष्टाश्मकाञ्चनः
तुल्यप्रियाप्रियो धीरस्तुल्यनिन्दात्मसंस्तुतिः ॥१४- २४॥
samaduḥkhasukhaḥ svasthaḥ samaloṣṭāśmakāñcanaḥ tulyapriyāpriyo dhīras tulyanindātmasaṃstutiḥ 14.24

मानापमानयोस्तुल्यस्तुल्यो मित्रारिपक्षयोः
सर्वारम्भपरित्यागी गुणातीतः स उच्यते ॥१४- २५॥
mānāpamānayos tulyas tulyo mitrāripakṣayoḥ sarvārambhaparityāgī guṇātītaḥ sa ucyate 14.25

मां च योऽव्यभिचारेण भक्तियोगेन सेवते
स गुणान्समतीत्यैतान्ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते ॥१४- २६॥
māṃ ca yovyabhicāreṇa bhaktiyogena sevate sa guṇān samatītyaitān brahmabhūyāya kalpate 14.26

ब्रह्मणो हि प्रतिष्ठाहममृतस्याव्ययस्य च
शाश्वतस्य च धर्मस्य सुखस्यैकान्तिकस्य च ॥१४- २७॥
brahmaṇo hi pratiṣṭhāham amṛtasyāvyayasya ca śāśvatasya ca dharmasya sukhasyaikāntikasya ca 14.27

He who hath no aversion for light, activity, and even delusion, O son of Pandu, when they are present, nor desireth them when they are absent, 2 who, seated as one unconcerned, is not shaken by those qualities; who sitteth and moveth not, thinking that it is the qualities (and not he) that are engaged (in their respective functions); to whom pain and pleasure are alike, who is self-contained, and to whom a sod of earth, a stone, and gold are alike; to whom the agreeable and the disagreeable are the same; who hath discernment; to whom censure and praise are the same; to whom honour and dishonour are the same; who regardeth friend and foe alike; who hath renounced all exertion--is said to have transcended the qualities. He also who worshippeth Me with exclusive devotion, he, transcending those qualities, becometh fit for admission into the nature of Brahma. For I am the stay of Brahma, of immortality, of undestructibility, of eternal piety, and of unbroken felicity.' 3

Chapter 15 पुरुषोत्तमयोगः

श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,

ऊर्ध्वमूलमधःशाखमश्वत्थं प्राहुरव्ययम्
छन्दांसि यस्य पर्णानि यस्तं वेद स वेदवित् ॥१५- १॥
ūrdhvamūlam adhaḥśākham aśvatthaṃ prāhur avyam chandāṃsi yasya parṇāni yas taṃ veda sa vedavit 15.1

अधश्चोर्ध्वं प्रसृतास्तस्य शाखा गुणप्रवृद्धा विषयप्रवालाः
अधश्च मूलान्यनुसंततानि कर्मानुबन्धीनि मनुष्यलोके ॥१५- २॥
adhaś cordhvaṃ prasṛtāstasya śākhā guṇapravṛddhā viṣayapravālāḥ adhaś ca mūlāny anusaṃtatāni karmānubandhīni manuṣyaloke 15.2

न रूपमस्येह तथोपलभ्यते नान्तो न चादिर्न च संप्रतिष्ठा
अश्वत्थमेनं सुविरूढमूल- मसङ्गशस्त्रेण दृढेन छित्त्वा ॥१५- ३॥
na rūpam asyeha tathopalabhyate nānto na cādir na ca saṃpratiṣṭhā aśvattham enaṃ suvirūḍhamūlaṃ asaṅgaśastreṇa dṛḍhena chittvā 15.3

ततः पदं तत्परिमार्गितव्यं यस्मिन्गता न निवर्तन्ति भूयः
तमेव चाद्यं पुरुषं प्रपद्ये यतः प्रवृत्तिः प्रसृता पुराणी ॥१५- ४॥
tataḥ padaṃ tatparimārgitavyaṃ yasmin gatā na nivartanti bhūyaḥ tameva cādyaṃ puruṣaṃ prapadye yataḥ pravṛttiḥ prasṛtā purāṇī 15.4

निर्मानमोहा जितसङ्गदोषा अध्यात्मनित्या विनिवृत्तकामाः
द्वन्द्वैर्विमुक्ताः सुखदुःखसंज्ञै- र्गच्छन्त्यमूढाः पदमव्ययं तत् ॥१५- ५॥
nirmānamohā jitasaṅgadoṣā adhyātmanityā vinivṛttakāmāḥ dvandvair vimuktāḥ sukhaduḥkhasaṃjñaiḥ gacchhanty amūḍhāḥ padam avyayaṃ tat 15.5

न तद्भासयते सूर्यो न शशाङ्को न पावकः
यद्गत्वा न निवर्तन्ते तद्धाम परमं मम ॥१५- ६॥
na tad bhāsayate sūryo na śaśāṅko na pāvakaḥ yad gatvā na nivartante tad dhāma paramaṃ mama 15.6

ममैवांशो जीवलोके जीवभूतः सनातनः
मनःषष्ठानीन्द्रियाणि प्रकृतिस्थानि कर्षति ॥१५- ७॥
mamaivāṃśo jīvaloke jīvabhūtaḥ sanātanaḥ manaḥṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi prakṛtisthāni karṣati 15.7

शरीरं यदवाप्नोति यच्चाप्युत्क्रामतीश्वरः
गृहित्वैतानि संयाति वायुर्गन्धानिवाशयात् ॥१५- ८॥
śarīraṃ yad avāpnoti yac cāpy utkrāmatīśvaraḥ gṛhitvaitāni saṃyāti vāyur gandhān ivāśayāt 15.8

श्रोत्रं चक्षुः स्पर्शनं च रसनं घ्राणमेव च
अधिष्ठाय मनश्चायं विषयानुपसेवते ॥१५- ९॥
śrotraṃ cakṣuḥ sparśanaṃ ca rasanaṃ ghrāṇam eva ca adhiṣṭhāya manaś cāyaṃ viṣayān upasevate 15.9

उत्क्रामन्तं स्थितं वापि भुञ्जानं वा गुणान्वितम्
विमूढा नानुपश्यन्ति पश्यन्ति ज्ञानचक्षुषः ॥१५- १०॥
utkrāmantaṃ sthitaṃ vāpi bhuñjānaṃ vā guṇānvitam vimūḍhā nānupaśyanti paśyanti jñānacakṣuṣaḥ 15.10

यतन्तो योगिनश्चैनं पश्यन्त्यात्मन्यवस्थितम्
यतन्तोऽप्यकृतात्मानो नैनं पश्यन्त्यचेतसः ॥१५- ११॥
yatanto yoginaś cainaṃ paśyanty ātmany avasthitam yatantopy akṛtātmāno nainaṃ paśyanty acetasaḥ 15.11

यदादित्यगतं तेजो जगद्भासयतेऽखिलम्
यच्चन्द्रमसि यच्चाग्नौ तत्तेजो विद्धि मामकम् ॥१५- १२॥
yad ādityagataṃ tejo jagad bhāsayatekhilam yac candramasi yac cāgnau tat tejo viddhi māmakam 15.12

गामाविश्य च भूतानि धारयाम्यहमोजसा
पुष्णामि चौषधीः सर्वाः सोमो भूत्वा रसात्मकः ॥१५- १३॥
gām āviśya ca bhūtāni dhārayāmy aham ojasā puṣṇāmi cauṣadhīḥ sarvāḥ somo bhūtvā rasātmakaḥ 15.13

अहं वैश्वानरो भूत्वा प्राणिनां देहमाश्रितः
प्राणापानसमायुक्तः पचाम्यन्नं चतुर्विधम् ॥१५- १४॥
ahaṃ vaiśvānaro bhūtvā prāṇināṃ deham āśritaḥ prāṇāpānasamāyuktaḥ pacāmy annaṃ caturvidham 15.14

सर्वस्य चाहं हृदि संनिविष्टो मत्तः स्मृतिर्ज्ञानमपोहनं च
वेदैश्च सर्वैरहमेव वेद्यो वेदान्तकृद्वेदविदेव चाहम् ॥१५- १५॥
sarvasya cāhaṃ hṛdi saṃniviṣṭo mattaḥ smṛtir jñānam apohanaṃ ca vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyo vedāntakṛd vedavid eva cāham 15.15

द्वाविमौ पुरुषौ लोके क्षरश्चाक्षर एव च
क्षरः सर्वाणि भूतानि कूटस्थोऽक्षर उच्यते ॥१५- १६॥
dvāv imau puruṣau loke kṣaraś cākṣara eva ca kṣaraḥ sarvāṇi bhūtāni kūṭasthokṣara ucyate 15.16

उत्तमः पुरुषस्त्वन्यः परमात्मेत्युदाहृतः
यो लोकत्रयमाविश्य बिभर्त्यव्यय ईश्वरः ॥१५- १७॥
uttamaḥ puruṣas tv anyaḥ paramātmety udāhṛtaḥ yo lokatrayam āviśya bibharty avyaya īśvaraḥ 15.17

यस्मात्क्षरमतीतोऽहमक्षरादपि चोत्तमः
अतोऽस्मि लोके वेदे च प्रथितः पुरुषोत्तमः ॥१५- १८॥
yasmāt kṣaram atītoham akṣarād api cottamaḥ atosmi loke vede ca prathitaḥ puruṣottamaḥ 15.18

यो मामेवमसंमूढो जानाति पुरुषोत्तमम्
स सर्वविद्भजति मां सर्वभावेन भारत ॥१५- १९॥
yo mām evam asaṃmūḍho jānāti puruṣottamam sa sarvavid bhajati māṃ sarvabhāvena bhārata 15.19

इति गुह्यतमं शास्त्रमिदमुक्तं मयानघ
एतद्बुद्ध्वा बुद्धिमान्स्यात्कृतकृत्यश्च भारत ॥१५- २०॥
iti guhyatamaṃ śāstram idam uktaṃ mayānagha etat buddhvā buddhimān syāt kṛtakṛtyaś ca bhārata 15.20

The Holy One said, 'They say that the Aswattha, having its roots above and branches below, is eternal, its leaves are the Chhandas. He who knoweth it, knoweth the Vedas. 4 Downwards and upwards are stretched its branches which are enlarged by the qualities; its sprouts are the objects of senses. Downwards its roots, leading to action, are extended to this world of men. 5 Its form cannot here (below) be thus known, nor (its) end, nor (its) beginning, nor (its) support. Cutting, with the hard weapon of unconcern, this Aswattha of roots firmly fixed, then should one seek for that place repairing whither one returneth not again (thinking)--I will seek the protection of that Primeval Sire from whom the ancient course of (worldly) life hath flowed.--Those that are free from pride and delusion, that have subdued the evil of attachment, that are steady in the contemplation of the relation of the Supreme to the individual self, from whom desire hath departed, freed from the pairs of opposites known by the names of pleasure and pain (and the like), repair, undeluded, to that eternal seat. The sun lighteth not that [seat], nor the moon, nor fire. Whither going none returneth, that is my supreme seat. An eternal portion of Me is that which, becoming an individual soul in the world of life, draweth to itself the (five) senses with the mind as the sixth which all depend on nature. When the sovereign (of this bodily frame) assumeth or quitteth (a) body, it departeth taking away these, like the wind (taking away) perfumes from their seats. Presiding over the ear, the eye, (the organs of) touch, taste, and smell, and also over the mind, he enjoyeth all objects of senses. They that are deluded do not see (him) when quitting or abiding in (the body), when enjoying or joined to the qualities. They (however) see that have the eye of knowledge. 1 Devotees exerting (towards that end) behold him dwelling in themselves. They (however) that are senseless and whose minds are not restrained, behold him not, even while exerting (themselves). 2 That splendour dwelling in the sun which illumines the vast universe, that (which is) in the moon, and that (which is) in the fire, know that splendour to be mine. Entering into the earth I uphold creatures by my force; and becoming the juicy moon I nourish all herbs. 3 Myself becoming the vital heat (Vaiswanara) residing in the bodies of creatures that breathe, (and) uniting with the upward and the downward life-breaths, I digest the four kinds of food. 4 I am seated in the hearts of all. From Me are memory and knowledge and the loss of both. I am the objects of knowledge to be known by (the aid of) all the Vedas. I am the author of the Vedantas, and I alone am the knower of the Vedas. 1 There are these two entities in the world, viz., the mutable and the immutable. The mutable is all (these) creatures. The unchangeable one is called the immutable. 2 But there is another, the Supreme Being, called Paramatman, who was the Eternal Lord, pervading the three worlds, sustaineth (them) (and) since I transcend the mutable, and am higher than even the immutable; for this I am celebrated in the world (among men) and in the Veda as Purushottama (the Highest Being). He who, without being deluded, knoweth Me as this Highest Being,--he knowing all, O Bharata, worshippeth Me in every way. 3 Thus, O sinless one, hath this knowledge, forming the greatest of mysteries, been declared by Me (to thee). Knowing this, O Bharata, one will become gifted with intelligence, and will have done all he needs do.'

Chapter 16 दैवासुरसम्पद्विभागयोगः

श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,

अभयं सत्त्वसंशुद्धिर्ज्ञानयोगव्यवस्थितिः
दानं दमश्च यज्ञश्च स्वाध्यायस्तप आर्जवम् ॥१६- १॥
abhayaṃ sattvasaṃśuddhir jñānayogavyavasthitiḥ dānaṃ damaś ca yajñaś ca svādhyāyas tapa ārjavam 16.1

अहिंसा सत्यमक्रोधस्त्यागः शान्तिरपैशुनम्
दया भूतेष्वलोलुप्त्वं मार्दवं ह्रीरचापलम् ॥१६- २॥
ahiṃsā satyam akrodhas tyāgaḥ śāntir apaiśunam dayā bhūteṣv aloluptvaṃ mārdavaṃ hrīr acāpalam 16.2

तेजः क्षमा धृतिः शौचमद्रोहो नातिमानिता
भवन्ति संपदं दैवीमभिजातस्य भारत ॥१६- ३॥
tejaḥ kṣamā dhṛtiḥ śaucam adroho nātimānitā bhavanti saṃpadaṃ daivīm abhijātasya bhārata 16.3

दम्भो दर्पोऽभिमानश्च क्रोधः पारुष्यमेव च
अज्ञानं चाभिजातस्य पार्थ संपदमासुरीम् ॥१६- ४॥
dambho darpobhimānaś ca krodhaḥ pāruṣyam eva ca ajñānaṃ cābhijātasya pārtha saṃpadam āsurīm 16.4

दैवी संपद्विमोक्षाय निबन्धायासुरी मता
मा शुचः संपदं दैवीमभिजातोऽसि पाण्डव ॥१६- ५॥
daivī saṃpad vimokṣāya nibandhāyāsurī matā mā śucaḥ saṃpadaṃ daivīm abhijātosi pāṇḍava 16.5

द्वौ भूतसर्गौ लोकेऽस्मिन्दैव आसुर एव च
दैवो विस्तरशः प्रोक्त आसुरं पार्थ मे शृणु ॥१६- ६॥
dvau bhūtasargau lokesmin daiva āsura eva ca daivo vistaraśaḥ prokta āsuraṃ pārtha me śṛṇu 16.6

प्रवृत्तिं च निवृत्तिं च जना न विदुरासुराः
न शौचं नापि चाचारो न सत्यं तेषु विद्यते ॥१६- ७॥
pravṛttiṃ ca nivṛttiṃ ca janā na vidur āsurāḥ na śaucaṃ nāpi cācāro na satyaṃ teṣu vidyate 16.7

असत्यमप्रतिष्ठं ते जगदाहुरनीश्वरम्
अपरस्परसंभूतं किमन्यत्कामहैतुकम् ॥१६- ८॥
asatyam apratiṣṭhaṃ te jagad āhur anīśvaram aparasparasaṃbhūtaṃ kim anyat kāmahaitukam 16.8

एतां दृष्टिमवष्टभ्य नष्टात्मानोऽल्पबुद्धयः
प्रभवन्त्युग्रकर्माणः क्षयाय जगतोऽहिताः ॥१६- ९॥
etāṃ dṛṣṭim avaṣṭabhya naṣṭātmānolpabuddhayaḥ prabhavanty ugrakarmāṇaḥ kṣayāya jagatohitāḥ 16.9

काममाश्रित्य दुष्पूरं दम्भमानमदान्विताः
मोहाद्गृहीत्वासद्ग्राहान्प्रवर्तन्तेऽशुचिव्रताः ॥१६- १०॥
kāmam āśritya duṣpūraṃ dambhamānamadānvitāḥ mohād gṛhītvāsadgrāhān pravartanteśucivratāḥ 16.10

चिन्तामपरिमेयां च प्रलयान्तामुपाश्रिताः
कामोपभोगपरमा एतावदिति निश्चिताः ॥१६- ११॥
cintām aparimeyāṃ ca pralayāntām upāśritāḥ kāmopabhogaparamā etāvad iti niścitāḥ 16.11

आशापाशशतैर्बद्धाः कामक्रोधपरायणाः
ईहन्ते कामभोगार्थमन्यायेनार्थसञ्चयान् ॥१६- १२॥
āśāpāśaśatair baddhāḥ kāmakrodhaparāyaṇāḥ īhante kāmabhogārtham anyāyenārthasaṃcayān 16.12

इदमद्य मया लब्धमिमं प्राप्स्ये मनोरथम्
इदमस्तीदमपि मे भविष्यति पुनर्धनम् ॥१६- १३॥
idam adya mayā labdham imaṃ prāpsye manoratham idam astīdam api me bhaviṣyati punar dhanam 16.13

असौ मया हतः शत्रुर्हनिष्ये चापरानपि
ईश्वरोऽहमहं भोगी सिद्धोऽहं बलवान्सुखी ॥१६- १४॥
asau mayā hataḥ śatrur haniṣye cāparān api īśvaro.aham ahaṃ bhogī siddhohaṃ balavān sukhī 16.14

आढ्योऽभिजनवानस्मि कोऽन्योऽस्ति सदृशो मया
यक्ष्ये दास्यामि मोदिष्य इत्यज्ञानविमोहिताः ॥१६- १५॥
āḍhyobhijanavān asmi konyosti sadṛśo mayā yakṣye dāsyāmi modiṣya ity ajñānavimohitāḥ 16.15

अनेकचित्तविभ्रान्ता मोहजालसमावृताः
प्रसक्ताः कामभोगेषु पतन्ति नरकेऽशुचौ ॥१६- १६॥
anekacittavibhrāntā mohajālasamāvṛtāḥ prasaktāḥ kāmabhogeṣu patanti narakeśucau 16.16

आत्मसंभाविताः स्तब्धा धनमानमदान्विताः
यजन्ते नामयज्ञैस्ते दम्भेनाविधिपूर्वकम् ॥१६- १७॥
ātmasaṃbhāvitāḥ stabdhā dhanamānamadānvitāḥ yajante nāmayajñais te dambhenāvidhipūrvakam 16.17

अहंकारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं च संश्रिताः
मामात्मपरदेहेषु प्रद्विषन्तोऽभ्यसूयकाः ॥१६- १८॥
ahaṃkāraṃ balaṃ darpaṃ kāmaṃ krodhaṃ ca saṃśritāḥ mām ātmaparadeheṣu pradviṣantobhyasūyakāḥ 16.18

तानहं द्विषतः क्रुरान्संसारेषु नराधमान्
क्षिपाम्यजस्रमशुभानासुरीष्वेव योनिषु ॥१६- १९॥
tān ahaṃ dviṣataḥ krurān saṃsāreṣu narādhamān kṣipāmy ajasram aśubhān āsurīṣv eva yoniṣu 16.19

आसुरीं योनिमापन्ना मूढा जन्मनि जन्मनि
मामप्राप्यैव कौन्तेय ततो यान्त्यधमां गतिम् ॥१६- २०॥
āsurīṃ yonim āpannā mūḍhā janmanijanmani mām aprāpyaiva kaunteya tato yānty adhamāṃ gatim 16.20

त्रिविधं नरकस्येदं द्वारं नाशनमात्मनः
कामः क्रोधस्तथा लोभस्तस्मादेतत्त्रयं त्यजेत् ॥१६- २१॥
trividhaṃ narakasyedaṃ dvāraṃ nāśanam ātmanaḥ kāmaḥ krodhas tathā lobhas tasmād etat trayaṃ tyajet 16.21

एतैर्विमुक्तः कौन्तेय तमोद्वारैस्त्रिभिर्नरः
आचरत्यात्मनः श्रेयस्ततो याति परां गतिम् ॥१६- २२॥
etair vimuktaḥ kaunteya tamodvārais tribhir naraḥ ācaraty ātmanaḥ śreyas tato yāti parāṃ gatim 16.22

यः शास्त्रविधिमुत्सृज्य वर्तते कामकारतः
न स सिद्धिमवाप्नोति न सुखं न परां गतिम् ॥१६- २३॥
yaḥ śāstravidhim utsṛjya vartate kāmakārataḥ na sa siddhim avāpnoti na sukhaṃ na parāṃ gatim 16.23

तस्माच्छास्त्रं प्रमाणं ते कार्याकार्यव्यवस्थितौ
ज्ञात्वा शास्त्रविधानोक्तं कर्म कर्तुमिहार्हसि ॥१६- २४॥
tasmāc chāstraṃ pramāṇaṃ te kāryākāryavyavasthitau jñātvā śāstravidhānoktaṃ karma kartum ihārhasi 16.24

Fearlessness, purity of heart, perseverance in (the pursuit of) knowledge and Yoga meditation, gifts, self-restraint, sacrifice, study of the Vedas, ascetic penances, uprightness, 4 abstention from injury, truth, freedom from anger, renunciation, tranquillity, freedom from reporting other's faults, compassion for all creatures, absence of covetousness, gentleness, modesty, absence of restlessness, vigour, forgiveness, firmness, cleanliness, absence of quarrelsomeness, freedom from vanity,--these become his, O Bharata, who is born to godlike possessions. Hypocrisy, pride, conceit, wrath, rudeness and ignorance, are, O son of Pritha, his who is born to demoniac possessions. God-like possessions are deemed to be for deliverance; the demoniac for bondage. Grieve not, O son of Pandu, for thou art born to god-like possessions. (There are) two kinds of created beings in this world, viz., the god-like and the demoniac. The god-like have been described at length. Hear now, from me, O son of Pritha, about the demoniac. Persons of demoniac nature know not inclination or disinclination. Neither purity, nor good conduct, nor truth exist in them. 1 They say that the universe is void of truth, of guiding principle, (and) of ruler; produced by the union of one another (male and female) from lust, and nothing else. Depending on this view, these men of lost selves, little intelligence, and fierce deeds, these enemies (of the world), are born for the destruction of the universe. 2 Cherishing desires that are insatiable, and endued with hypocrisy, conceit and folly, they adopt false notions through delusion and engage in unholy practices. Cherishing boundless thoughts limited by death (alone), and regarding the enjoyment of (their ) desires as the highest end, they are persuaded that that is all. Fettered by the hundred nooses of hope, addicted to lust and wrath, they covet to obtain this wealth to-day,--This I will obtain later,--This wealth I have,--This (wealth) will be mine in addition,--This foe hath been slain by me,--I will slay even others,--I am lord,--I am the enjoyer,--I am successful, powerful, happy,--I am rich and of noble birth,--Who else is there that is like me?--I will sacrifice,--I will make gifts,--I will be merry,--thus deluded by ignorance,--tossed about by numerous thoughts, enveloped in the meshes of delusion, attached to the enjoyment of objects of desire, they sink into foul hell. Self-conceited, stubborn, filled with the pride and intoxication of wealth, they perform sacrifices that are nominally so, with hypocrisy and against the (prescribed) ordinance. Wedded to vanity, power, pride, lust and wrath, these revilers hate Me in their own bodies and those of others. These haters (of Me), cruel, the vilest among men, and unholy, I hurl continually down into demoniac wombs. Coming into demoniac wombs, deluded birth after birth, they, O son of Kunti, without attaining to Me go down to the vilest state. Three-fold is the way to hell, ruinous to the self, viz., lust, wrath, likewise avarice. Therefore, these three, one should renounce. Freed from these three gates of darkness, a man, O son of Kunti, works out his own welfare, and then repairs to his highest goal. He who, abandoning the ordinances of the scriptures, acts only under the impulses of desire, never attains to perfection, nor happiness, nor the highest goal. Therefore, the scriptures should be thy authority in determining what should be done and what should not be done. It behoveth thee to do work here, having ascertained what hath been declared by the ordinances of the scriptures.'

Section 44
अर्जुन उवाच
arjuna uvāca

Arjuna said,

ये शास्त्रविधिमुत्सृज्य यजन्ते श्रद्धयान्विताः ।
तेषां निष्ठा तु का कृष्ण सत्त्वमाहो रजस्तमः ॥१७- १॥
ye śāstravidhim utsṛjya yajante śraddhayānvitāḥ teṣāṃ niṣṭhā tu kā kṛṣṇa sattvam āho rajas tamaḥ 17.1

What is the state, O Krishna, of those who abandoning the ordinance of the scriptures, perform sacrifices endued with faith? It is one of Goodness, or Passion, or Darkness?'

Chapter 17 श्रद्धात्रयविभागयोगः

Section 45
श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said,

त्रिविधा भवति श्रद्धा देहिनां सा स्वभावजा ।
सात्त्विकी राजसी चैव तामसी चेति तां शृणु ॥१७- २॥
trividhā bhavati śraddhā dehināṃ sā svabhāvajā sāttvikī rājasī caiva tāmasī ceti tāṃ śṛṇu 17.2

The faith of embodied (creatures) is of three kinds. It is (also) born of their (individual) natures. It is good, passionate, and dark.

सत्त्वानुरूपा सर्वस्य श्रद्धा भवति भारत ।
श्रद्धामयोऽयं पुरुषो यो यच्छ्रद्धः स एव सः ॥१७- ३॥
sattvānurūpā sarvasya śraddhā bhavati bhārata śraddhāmayoyaṃ puruṣo yo yacchraddhaḥ sa eva saḥ 17.3

Hear now these. The faith of one, O Bharata, is conformable to his own nature. A being here is full of faith; and whatever is one's faith, one is even that.

यजन्ते सात्त्विका देवान्यक्षरक्षांसि राजसाः ।
प्रेतान्भूतगणांश्चान्ये यजन्ते तामसा जनाः ॥१७- ४॥
yajante sāttvikā devān yakṣarakṣāṃsi rājasāḥ pretān bhūtagaṇāñś cānye yajante tāmasā janāḥ 17.4

They that are of the quality of goodness worship the gods; they that are of the quality of passion (worship) the Yakshas and the Rakshasas; other people that are of the quality of darkness worship departed spirits and hosts of Bhutas.

अशास्त्रविहितं घोरं तप्यन्ते ये तपो जनाः ।
दम्भाहंकारसंयुक्ताः कामरागबलान्विताः ॥१७- ५॥
aśāstravihitaṃ ghoraṃ tapyante ye tapo janāḥ dambhāhaṃkārasaṃyuktāḥ kāmarāgabalānvitāḥ 17.5

Those people who practise severe ascetic austerities not ordained by the scriptures, are given up to hypocrisy and pride, and endued with desire of attachment, and violence,

कर्षयन्तः शरीरस्थं भूतग्राममचेतसः ।
मां चैवान्तःशरीरस्थं तान्विद्ध्यासुरनिश्चयान् ॥१७- ६॥
karṣayantaḥ śarīrasthaṃ bhūtagrāmam acetasaḥ māṃ caivāntaḥśarīrasthaṃ tān viddhy āsuraniścayān 17.6

--those persons possessed of no discernment, torturing the groups of organs in (their) bodies and Me also seated within (those) bodies,--should be known to be of demoniac resolves.

आहारस्त्वपि सर्वस्य त्रिविधो भवति प्रियः ।
यज्ञस्तपस्तथा दानं तेषां भेदमिमं शृणु ॥१७- ७॥
āhāras tv api sarvasya trividho bhavati priyaḥ yajñas tapas tathā dānaṃ teṣāṃ bhedam imaṃ śṛṇu 17.7

Food which is dear to all is of three kinds. Sacrifice, penance, and gifts are likewise (of three kinds). Listen to their distinctions as follows.

आयुःसत्त्वबलारोग्यसुखप्रीतिविवर्धनाः ।
रस्याः स्निग्धाः स्थिरा हृद्या आहाराः सात्त्विकप्रियाः ॥१७- ८॥
āyuḥsattvabalārogyasukhaprītivivardhanāḥ rasyāḥ snigdhāḥ sthirā hṛdyā āhārāḥ sāttvikapriyāḥ 17.8

Those kinds of food that increase life's period, energy, strength, health, well-being, and joy, which are savoury, oleaginous, nutritive, and agreeable, are liked by God.

कट्वम्ललवणात्युष्णतीक्ष्णरूक्षविदाहिनः ।
आहारा राजसस्येष्टा दुःखशोकामयप्रदाः ॥१७- ९॥
kaṭvamlalavaṇātyuṣṇatīkṣṇarūkṣavidāhinaḥ āhārā rājasasyeṣṭā duḥkhaśokāmayapradāḥ 17.9

Those kinds of food which are bitter, sour, salted, over-hot, pungent, dry, and burning, and which produce pain, grief and disease, are desired by the passionate.

यातयामं गतरसं पूति पर्युषितं च यत् ।
उच्छिष्टमपि चामेध्यं भोजनं तामसप्रियम् ॥१७- १०॥
yātayāmaṃ gatarasaṃ pūti paryuṣitaṃ ca yat ucchiṣṭam api cāmedhyaṃ bhojanaṃ tāmasapriyam 17.10

The food which is cold, without savour, stinking and corrupt, and which is even refuse, and filthy, is dear to men of darkness.

अफलाकाङ्क्षिभिर्यज्ञो विधिदृष्टो य इज्यते ।
यष्टव्यमेवेति मनः समाधाय स सात्त्विकः ॥१७- ११॥
aphalāṅkṣibhir yajño vidhidṛṣṭo ya ijyate yaṣṭavyam eveti manaḥ samādhāya sa sāttvikaḥ 17.11

That sacrifice is good which, being prescribed by the ordinance, is performed by persons, without any longing for the fruit (thereof) and the mind being determined (to it under the belief) that its performance is a duty.

अभिसंधाय तु फलं दम्भार्थमपि चैव यत् ।
इज्यते भरतश्रेष्ठ तं यज्ञं विद्धि राजसम् ॥१७- १२॥
abhisaṃdhāya tu phalaṃ dambhārtham api caiva yat ijyate bharataśreṣṭha taṃ yajñaṃ viddhi rājasam 17.12

But that which is performed in expectation of fruit and even for the sake of ostentation, know that sacrifice, O chief of the sons of Bharata, to be of the quality of passion.

विधिहीनमसृष्टान्नं मन्त्रहीनमदक्षिणम् ।
श्रद्धाविरहितं यज्ञं तामसं परिचक्षते ॥१७- १३॥
vidhihīnam asṛṣṭānnaṃ mantrahīnam adakṣiṇam śraddhāvirahitaṃ yajñaṃ tāmasaṃ paricakṣate 17.13

That sacrifice which is against the ordinance, in which no food is dealt out, which is devoid of mantras (sacred verse), in which no fees are paid to the brahmanas assisting to it, and which is void of faith, is said to be of the quality of darkness.

देवद्विजगुरुप्राज्ञपूजनं शौचमार्जवम् ।
ब्रह्मचर्यमहिंसा च शारीरं तप उच्यते ॥१७- १४॥
devadvijaguruprājñapūjanaṃ śaucam ārjavam brahmacaryam ahiṃsā ca śārīraṃ tapa ucyate 17.14

Reverence to the gods, regenerate ones, preceptors, and men of knowledge, purity, uprightness, the practices of a Brahmacharin, and abstention from injury, are said to constitute the penance of the body.

अनुद्वेगकरं वाक्यं सत्यं प्रियहितं च यत् ।
स्वाध्यायाभ्यसनं चैव वाङ्मयं तप उच्यते ॥१७- १५॥
anudvegakaraṃ vākyaṃ satyaṃ priyahitaṃ ca yat svādhyāyābhyasanaṃ caiva vāṅmayaṃ tapa ucyate 17.15

The speech which causeth no agitation, which is true, which is agreeable and beneficial, and the diligent study of the Vedas, are said to be the penance of speech.

मनः प्रसादः सौम्यत्वं मौनमात्मविनिग्रहः ।
भावसंशुद्धिरित्येतत्तपो मानसमुच्यते ॥१७- १६॥
manaḥprasādaḥ saumyatvaṃ maunam ātmavinigrahaḥ bhāvasaṃśuddhir ity etat tapo mānasam ucyate 17.16

Serenity of the mind, gentleness, taciturnity, self-restraint, and purity of the disposition,--these are said to be the penance of the mind.

श्रद्धया परया तप्तं तपस्तत्त्रिविधं नरैः ।
अफलाकाङ्क्षिभिर्युक्तैः सात्त्विकं परिचक्षते ॥१७- १७॥
śraddhayā parayā taptaṃ tapas tat trividhaṃ naraiḥ aphalākāṅkṣibhir yuktaiḥ sāttvikaṃ paricakṣate 17.17

This three-fold penance performed with perfect faith, by men without desire of fruit, and with devotion, is said to be of the quality of goodness.

सत्कारमानपूजार्थं तपो दम्भेन चैव यत् ।
क्रियते तदिह प्रोक्तं राजसं चलमध्रुवम् ॥१७- १८॥
satkāramānapūjārthaṃ tapo dambhena caiva yat kriyate tad iha proktaṃ rājasaṃ calam adhruvam 17.18

That penance which is performed for the sake of (gaining) respect, honour, and reverence, with hypocrisy, (and) which is unstable and transient is said to be of the quality of passion.

मूढग्राहेणात्मनो यत्पीडया क्रियते तपः ।
परस्योत्सादनार्थं वा तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥१७- १९॥
mūḍhagrāheṇātmano yat pīḍayā kriyate tapaḥ parasyotsādanārthaṃ vā tat tāmasam udāhṛtam 17.19

That penance which is performed under a deluded conviction, with torture of one's self, and for the destruction of another, is said to be of the quality of darkness.

दातव्यमिति यद्दानं दीयतेऽनुपकारिणे ।
देशे काले च पात्रे च तद्दानं सात्त्विकं स्मृतम् ॥१७- २०॥
dātavyam iti yad dānaṃ dīyatenupakāriṇe deśe kāle ca pātre ca tad dānaṃ sāttvikaṃ smṛtam 17.20

That gift which is given because it ought to be given, to one who cannot return any service for it, in a proper time, and to a proper person, is said to be of the quality of goodness.

यत्तु प्रत्युपकारार्थं फलमुद्दिश्य वा पुनः ।
दीयते च परिक्लिष्टं तद्दानं राजसं स्मृतम् ॥१७- २१॥
yat tu prattyupakārārthaṃ phalam uddiśya vā punaḥ dīyate ca parikliṣṭaṃ tad dānaṃ rājasaṃ smṛtam 17.21

That, however, which is given reluctantly, for return of services (past or expected), or even with an eye to fruit,--that gift is said to be of the quality of passion.

अदेशकाले यद्दानमपात्रेभ्यश्च दीयते ।
असत्कृतमवज्ञातं तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥१७- २२॥
adeśakāle yad dānam apātrebhyaś ca dīyate asatkṛtam avajñātaṃ tat tāmasam udāhṛtam 17.22

In an unfit place and at an unfit time, the gift that is made to an unworthy object, without respect, and with contempt, is said to be of the quality of darkness.

ॐतत्सदिति निर्देशो ब्रह्मणस्त्रिविधः स्मृतः ।
ब्राह्मणास्तेन वेदाश्च यज्ञाश्च विहिताः पुरा ॥१७- २३॥
oṃ tat sad iti nirdeśo brahmaṇas trividhaḥ smṛtaḥ brāhmaṇās tena vedāś ca yajñāś ca vihitāḥ purā 17.23

OM, TAT, SAT, this is said to be the three-fold designation of Brahma. By that (Brahma), the Brahmanas and the Vedas, and the Sacrifices, were ordained of old.

तस्मादोमित्युदाहृत्य यज्ञदानतपःक्रियाः ।
प्रवर्तन्ते विधानोक्ताः सततं ब्रह्मवादिनाम् ॥१७- २४॥
tasmād om ity udāhṛtya yajñadānatapaḥkriyāḥ pravartante vidhānoktāḥ satataṃ brahmavādinām 17.24

Therefore, uttering the syllable OM, the sacrifices, gifts, and penances, prescribed by the ordinance, of all utterers of Brahma begin.

तदित्यनभिसन्धाय फलं यज्ञतपःक्रियाः ।
दानक्रियाश्च विविधाः क्रियन्ते मोक्षकाङ्क्षिभिः ॥१७- २५॥
tad ity anabhisaṃdhāya phalaṃ yajñatapaḥkriyāḥ dānakriyāś ca vividhāḥ kriyante mokṣakāṅkṣibhiḥ 17.25

Uttering TAT, the various rites of sacrifice, penance, and gifts, without expectation of fruit, are performed by those that are desirous of deliverance.

सद्भावे साधुभावे च सदित्येतत्प्रयुज्यते ।
प्रशस्ते कर्मणि तथा सच्छब्दः पार्थ युज्यते ॥१७- २६॥
sadbhāve sādhubhāve ca sad ity etat prayujyate praśaste karmaṇi tathā sacchabdaḥ pārtha yujyate 17.26

SAT is employed to denote existence and goodness. Likewise, O son of Pritha, the word SAT is used in any auspicious act.

यज्ञे तपसि दाने च स्थितिः सदिति चोच्यते ।
कर्म चैव तदर्थीयं सदित्येवाभिधीयते ॥१७- २७॥
yajñe tapasi dāne ca sthitiḥ sad iti cocyate karma caiva tadarthīyaṃ sad ity evābhidhīyate 17.27

Constancy in sacrifices, in penances and in gifts, is also called SAT, and an act, too, for the sake of That is called SAT.

अश्रद्धया हुतं दत्तं तपस्तप्तं कृतं च यत् ।
असदित्युच्यते पार्थ न च तत्प्रेत्य नो इह ॥१७- २८॥
aśraddhayā hutaṃ dattaṃ tapas taptaṃ kṛtaṃ ca yat asad ity ucyate pārtha na ca tat prepya no iha 17.28

Whatever oblation is offered (to the fire), whatever is given away, whatever penance is performed, whatever is done, without faith, is, O son of Pritha, said to be the opposite of SAT; and that is nought both here and hereafter.

Chapter 18 मोक्षसंन्यासयोगः

Section 46
अर्जुन उवाच
arjuna uvāca

Arjuna said,

संन्यासस्य महाबाहो तत्त्वमिच्छामि वेदितुम् ।
त्यागस्य च हृषीकेश पृथक्केशिनिषूदन ॥१८- १॥
saṃnyāsasya mahābāho tattvam icchāmi veditum tyāgasya ca hṛṣīkeśa pṛthak keśiniṣūdana 18.1

'Of renunciation, O thou of mighty arms, I desire to know the true nature, and also of abandonment, O lord of the senses distinctly, O slayer of Kesi.

Section 47
श्रीभगवानुवाच
śrībhagavān uvāca

The Holy One said

Abandonment

काम्यानां कर्मणां न्यासं संन्यासं कवयो विदुः ।
सर्वकर्मफलत्यागं प्राहुस्त्यागं विचक्षणाः ॥१८- २॥
kāmyānāṃ karmaṇāṃ nyāsaṃ saṃnyāsaṃ kavayoviduḥ sarvakarmaphalatyāgaṃ prāhus tyāgaṃ vicakṣaṇāḥ 18.2

त्याज्यं दोषवदित्येके कर्म प्राहुर्मनीषिणः ।
यज्ञदानतपःकर्म न त्याज्यमिति चापरे ॥१८- ३॥
tyājyaṃ doṣavad ity eke karma prāhur manīṣiṇaḥ yajñadānatapaḥkarma na tyājyam iti cāpare 18.3

निश्चयं शृणु मे तत्र त्यागे भरतसत्तम ।
त्यागो हि पुरुषव्याघ्र त्रिविधः संप्रकीर्तितः ॥१८- ४॥
niścayaṃ śṛṇu me tatra tyāge bharatasattama tyāgo hi puruṣavyāghra trividhaḥ saṃprakīrtitaḥ 18.4

The rejection of the works with desire is known by the learned as renunciation. The abandonment of the fruit of all work, the discerning call abandonment. Some wise men say that work (itself) should be abandoned as evil; others (say) that the works of sacrifice, gifts, and penance, should not be abandoned. As to that abandonment, listen to my decision, O best of the sons of Bharata, for abandonment, O tiger among men, hath been declared to be of three kinds.

यज्ञदानतपःकर्म न त्याज्यं कार्यमेव तत् ।
यज्ञो दानं तपश्चैव पावनानि मनीषिणाम् ॥१८- ५॥
yajñadānatapaḥkarma na tyājyaṃ kāryam eva tat yajño dānaṃ tapaś caiva pāvanāni manīṣiṇām 18.5

एतान्यपि तु कर्माणि सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा फलानि च ।
कर्तव्यानीति मे पार्थ निश्चितं मतमुत्तमम् ॥१८- ६॥
etāny api tu karmāṇi saṅgaṃ tyaktvā phalāni ca kartavyānīti me pārtha niścitaṃ matam uttamam 18.6

नियतस्य तु संन्यासः कर्मणो नोपपद्यते ।
मोहात्तस्य परित्यागस्तामसः परिकीर्तितः ॥१८- ७॥
niyatasya tu saṃnyāsaḥ karmaṇo nopapadyate mohāt tasya parityāgas tāmasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ 18.7

दुःखमित्येव यत्कर्म कायक्लेशभयात्त्यजेत् ।
स कृत्वा राजसं त्यागं नैव त्यागफलं लभेत् ॥१८- ८॥
duḥkham ity eva yat karma kāyakleśabhayāt tyajet sa kṛtvā rājasaṃ tyāgaṃ naiva tyāgaphalaṃ labhet 18.8

कार्यमित्येव यत्कर्म नियतं क्रियतेऽर्जुन ।
सङ्गं त्यक्त्वा फलं चैव स त्यागः सात्त्विको मतः ॥१८- ९॥
kāryam ity eva yat karma niyataṃ kriyaterjuna saṅgaṃ tyaktvā phalaṃ caiva sa tyāgaḥ sāttviko mataḥ 18.9

न द्वेष्ट्यकुशलं कर्म कुशले नानुषज्जते ।
त्यागी सत्त्वसमाविष्टो मेधावी छिन्नसंशयः ॥१८- १०॥
na dveṣṭy akuśalaṃ karma kuśale nānuṣajjate tyāgī sattvasamāviṣṭo medhāvī chinnasaṃśayaḥ 18.10

न हि देहभृता शक्यं त्यक्तुं कर्माण्यशेषतः ।
यस्तु कर्मफलत्यागी स त्यागीत्यभिधीयते ॥१८- ११॥
na hi dehabhṛtā śakyaṃ tyaktuṃ karmāṇy aśeṣataḥ yas tu karmaphalatyāgī sa tyāgīty abhidhīyate 18.11

अनिष्टमिष्टं मिश्रं च त्रिविधं कर्मणः फलम् ।
भवत्यत्यागिनां प्रेत्य न तु संन्यासिनां क्वचित् ॥१८- १२॥
aniṣṭam iṣṭaṃ miśraṃ ca trividhaṃ karmaṇaḥ phalam bhavaty atyāgināṃ pretya na tu saṃnyāsināṃ kvacit 18.12

  1. The works of sacrifice, gifts, and penance should not be abandoned. They should, indeed, be done. Sacrifice, gift, and penance, are the purifications of the wise. But even those works should be done, abandoning attachment and fruit. This, O son of Pritha, is my excellent and decided opinion.
  2. The renunciation of an act prescribed (in the scriptures) is not proper. Its abandonment (is) from delusion, (and) is (therefore,) declared to be of the quality of darkness. (Regarding it) as (a source of) sorrow, when work is abandoned from (fear of) bodily pain, one making such an abandonment which is of the quality of passion never obtaineth the fruit of abandonment. (Regarding it) as one that should be done, when work that is prescribed (in the scriptures) is done, O Arjuna, abandoning attachment and fruit also, that abandonment is deemed to be of the quality of goodness.
  3. Possessed of intelligence and with doubts dispelled, an abandoner that is endowed with the quality of goodness hath no aversion for an unpleasant action and no attachment to pleasant (ones). Since actions cannot be absolutely abandoned by an embodied person, (therefore) he who abandons the fruit of actions is truly said to be an abandoner. Evil, good and mixed-action hath (this) three-fold fruit hereafter for those that do not abandon. But there is none whatever for the renouncer.

पञ्चैतानि महाबाहो कारणानि निबोध मे ।
सांख्ये कृतान्ते प्रोक्तानि सिद्धये सर्वकर्मणाम् ॥१८- १३॥
pañcaitāni mahābāho kāraṇāni nibodha me sāṃkhye kṛtānte proktāni siddhaye sarvakarmaṇām 18.13

Listen from me, O thou of mighty arms, to those five causes for the completion of all actions, declared in the Sankhya treating of the annihilation of actions. (They are)

अधिष्ठानं तथा कर्ता करणं च पृथग्विधम् ।
विविधाश्च पृथक्चेष्टा दैवं चैवात्र पञ्चमम् ॥१८- १४॥
adhiṣṭhānaṃ tathā kartā karaṇaṃ ca pṛthagvidham vividhāś ca pṛthakceṣṭā daivaṃ caivātra pañcamam 18.14

substratum, agent, the diverse kinds of organs, the diverse efforts severally, and with them the deities as the fifth.

शरीरवाङ्मनोभिर्यत्कर्म प्रारभते नरः ।
न्याय्यं वा विपरीतं वा पञ्चैते तस्य हेतवः ॥१८- १५॥
śarīravāṅmanobhir yat karma prārabhate naraḥ nyāyyaṃ vā viparītaṃ vā pañcaite tasya hetavaḥ 18.15

With body, speech, or mind, whatever work, just or the reverse, a man undertakes, these five are its causes.

तत्रैवं सति कर्तारमात्मानं केवलं तु यः ।
पश्यत्यकृतबुद्धित्वान्न स पश्यति दुर्मतिः ॥१८- १६॥
tatraivaṃ sati kartāram ātmānaṃ kevalaṃ tu yaḥ paśyaty akṛtabuddhitvān na sa paśyati durmatiḥ 18.16

That being so, he that, owing to an unrefined understanding, beholdeth his own self as solely the agent, he, dull in mind, beholdeth not.

यस्य नाहंकृतो भावो बुद्धिर्यस्य न लिप्यते ।
हत्वापि स इमाँल्लोकान्न हन्ति न निबध्यते ॥१८- १७॥
yasya nāhaṃkṛto bhāvo buddhir yasya na lipyate hatvā.api sa imāṃl lokān na hanti na nibadhyate 18.17

He that hath no feeling of egoism, whose mind is not sullied, he, even killing all these people, killeth not, nor is fettered (by action).

Satvik/Rajsik/Tamsik Goodness/Passion/Darkness

ज्ञानं ज्ञेयं परिज्ञाता त्रिविधा कर्मचोदना ।
करणं कर्म कर्तेति त्रिविधः कर्मसंग्रहः ॥१८- १८॥
jñānaṃ jñeyaṃ parijñātā trividhā karmacodanā karaṇaṃ karma karteti trividhaḥ karmasaṃgrahaḥ 18.18

Knowledge, the object of knowledge, and the knower, form the three-fold impulse of action. Instrument, action, and the agent, form the three-fold complement of action.

ज्ञानं कर्म च कर्ता च त्रिधैव गुणभेदतः ।
प्रोच्यते गुणसंख्याने यथावच्छृणु तान्यपि ॥१८- १९॥
jñānaṃ karma ca kartā ca tridhaiva guṇabhedataḥ procyate guṇasaṃkhyāne yathāvac chṛṇu tāny api 18.19

Knowledge, action, and agent, are declared in the enumeration of qualities to be three-fold, according to the difference of qualities. Listen to those also duly.

सर्वभूतेषु येनैकं भावमव्ययमीक्षते ।
अविभक्तं विभक्तेषु तज्ज्ञानं विद्धि सात्त्विकम् ॥१८- २०॥
sarvabhūteṣu yenaikaṃ bhāvam avyayam īkṣate avibhaktaṃ vibhakteṣu taj jñānaṃ viddhi sāttvikam 18.20

That by which One Eternal Essence is viewed in all things, undivided in the divided, know that to be knowledge having the quality of goodness.

पृथक्त्वेन तु यज्ज्ञानं नानाभावान्पृथग्विधान् ।
वेत्ति सर्वेषु भूतेषु तज्ज्ञानं विद्धि राजसम् ॥१८- २१॥
pṛthaktvena tu yaj jñānaṃ nānābhāvān pṛthagvidhān vetti sarveṣu bhūteṣu taj jñānaṃ viddhi rājasam 18.21

That knowledge which discerneth all things as diverse essences of different kinds in consequence of their separateness, know that that knowledge hath the quality of passion.

यत्तु कृत्स्नवदेकस्मिन्कार्ये सक्तमहैतुकम् ।
अतत्त्वार्थवदल्पं च तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥१८- २२॥
yat tu kṛtsnavad ekasmin kārye saktam ahetukam atattvārthavad alpaṃ ca tat tāmasam udāhṛtam 18.22

But that which is attached to (each) single object as if it were the whole, which is without reason, without truth, and mean, that knowledge hath been said to be of the quality of darkness.

नियतं सङ्गरहितमरागद्वेषतः कृतम् ।
अफलप्रेप्सुना कर्म यत्तत्सात्त्विकमुच्यते ॥१८- २३॥
niyataṃ saṅgarahitam arāgadveṣataḥ kṛtam aphalaprepsunā karma yat tat sāttvikam ucyate 18.23

The action which is prescribed (by the scriptures), (done) without attachment, performed without desires and aversion, by one who longeth not for (its) fruit, is said to be of the quality of goodness.

यत्तु कामेप्सुना कर्म साहंकारेण वा पुनः ।
क्रियते बहुलायासं तद्राजसमुदाहृतम् ॥१८- २४॥
yat tu kāmepsunā karma sāhaṃkāreṇa vā punaḥ kriyate bahulāyāsaṃ tad rājasam udāhṛtam 18.24

But that action which is done by one seeking objects of desire, or by one filled with egoism, and which is attended with great trouble, is said to be of the quality of passion.

अनुबन्धं क्षयं हिंसामनवेक्ष्य च पौरुषम् ।
मोहादारभ्यते कर्म यत्तत्तामसमुच्यते ॥१८- २५॥
anubandhaṃ kṣayaṃ hiṃsām anapekṣya ca pauruṣam mohād ārabhyate karma yat tat tāmasam ucyate 18.25

That action which is undertaken from delusion, without regard to consequences, loss, injury (to others), and (one's own) power also, is said to be of the quality of passion. (Umesh note: it should be darkness)

मुक्तसङ्गोऽनहंवादी धृत्युत्साहसमन्वितः ।
सिद्ध्यसिद्ध्योर्निर्विकारः कर्ता सात्त्विक उच्यते ॥१८- २६॥
muktasaṅgonahaṃvādī dhṛtyutsāhasamanvitaḥ siddhyasiddhyor nirvikāraḥ kartā sāttvika ucyate 18.26

The agent who is free from attachment, who never speaketh of himself, who is endued with constancy and energy, and is unmoved by success and defeat, is said to be of the quality of goodness.

रागी कर्मफलप्रेप्सुर्लुब्धो हिंसात्मकोऽशुचिः ।
हर्षशोकान्वितः कर्ता राजसः परिकीर्तितः ॥१८- २७॥
rāgī karmaphalaprepsur lubdho hiṃsātmakośuciḥ harṣaśokānvitaḥ kartā rājasaḥ parikīrtitaḥ 18.27

The agent who is full of affections, who wisheth for the fruit of actions, who is covetous, endued with cruelty, and impure, and who feeleth joy and sorrow, is declared to be of the quality of passion.

अयुक्तः प्राकृतः स्तब्धः शठो नैष्कृतिकोऽलसः ।
विषादी दीर्घसूत्री च कर्ता तामस उच्यते ॥१८- २८॥
ayuktaḥ prākṛtaḥ stabdhaḥ śaṭho naiṣkṛtikolasaḥ viṣādī dīrghasūtrī ca kartā tāmasa ucyate 18.28

  • The agent who is void of application, without discernment, obstinate, deceitful, malicious, slothful, desponding, and procrastinating, is said to be of the quality of darkness.

  • बुद्धेर्भेदं धृतेश्चैव गुणतस्त्रिविधं शृणु ।
    प्रोच्यमानमशेषेण पृथक्त्वेन धनंजय ॥१८- २९॥
    buddher bhedaṃ dhṛteś caiva guṇatas trividhaṃ śṛṇu procyamānam aśeṣeṇa pṛthaktvena dhanaṃjaya 18.29

    Hear now, O Dhananjaya, the three-fold division of intellect and constancy, according to their qualities, which I am about to declare exhaustively and distinctly.

    प्रवृत्तिं च निवृत्तिं च कार्याकार्ये भयाभये ।
    बन्धं मोक्षं च या वेत्ति बुद्धिः सा पार्थ सात्त्विकी ॥१८- ३०॥
    pravṛttiṃ ca nivṛttiṃ ca kāryākārye bhayābhaye bandhaṃ mokṣaṃ ca yā vetti buddhiḥ sā pārtha sāttvikī 18.30

    The intellect which knoweth action and inaction, what ought to be done and what ought not to be done, fear and fearlessness, bondage and deliverance, is, O son of Pritha, of the quality of goodness.

    यया धर्ममधर्मं च कार्यं चाकार्यमेव च ।
    अयथावत्प्रजानाति बुद्धिः सा पार्थ राजसी ॥१८- ३१॥
    yayā dharmam adharmaṃ ca kāryaṃ cākāryam eva ca ayathāvat prajānāti buddhiḥ sā pārtha rājasī 18.31

    The intellect by which one imperfectly discerneth right and wrong, that which ought to be done and that which ought not to be done, is, O son of Pritha, of the quality of passion.

    अधर्मं धर्ममिति या मन्यते तमसावृता ।
    सर्वार्थान्विपरीतांश्च बुद्धिः सा पार्थ तामसी ॥१८- ३२॥
    adharmaṃ dharmam iti yā manyate tamasāvṛtā sarvārthān viparītāñś ca buddhiḥ sā pārtha tāmasī 18.32

    That intellect which, shrouded by darkness, regardeth wrong to be right, and all things as reversed, is, O son of Pritha, of the quality of darkness.

    धृत्या यया धारयते मनःप्राणेन्द्रियक्रियाः ।
    योगेनाव्यभिचारिण्या धृतिः सा पार्थ सात्त्विकी ॥१८- ३३॥
    dhṛtyā yayā dhārayate manaḥprāṇendriyakriyāḥ yogenāvyabhicāriṇyā dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha sāttvikī 18.33

    That unswerving constancy by which one controls the functions of the mind, the life-breaths, and the senses, through devotion, that constancy, is, O son of Pritha, of the quality of goodness.

    यया तु धर्मकामार्थान्धृत्या धारयतेऽर्जुन ।
    प्रसङ्गेन फलाकाङ्क्षी धृतिः सा पार्थ राजसी ॥१८- ३४॥
    yayā tu dharmakāmārthān dhṛtyā dhārayaterjuna prasaṅgena phalākāṅkṣī dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha rājasī 18.34

    But that constancy, O Arjuna, by which one holds to religion, desire, and profit, through attachment, desiring fruit, that constancy, O son of Pritha, is of the quality of passion.

    यया स्वप्नं भयं शोकं विषादं मदमेव च ।
    न विमुञ्चति दुर्मेधा धृतिः सा पार्थ तामसी ॥१८- ३५॥
    yayā svapnaṃ bhayaṃ śokaṃ viṣādaṃ madam eva ca na vimuñcati durmedhā dhṛtiḥ sā pārtha tāmasī 18.35

    That through which an undiscerning person abandons not sleep, fear, sorrow, despondency, and folly, that constancy is deemed to be of the quality of darkness.

    सुखं त्विदानीं त्रिविधं शृणु मे भरतर्षभ ।
    अभ्यासाद्रमते यत्र दुःखान्तं च निगच्छति ॥१८- ३६॥
    sukhaṃ tv idānīṃ trividhaṃ śṛṇu me bharatarṣabha abhyāsād ramate yatra duḥkhāntaṃ ca nigacchhati 18.36

    Hear now from me, O bull of Bharata's race, of the three kinds of happiness.

    यत्तदग्रे विषमिव परिणामेऽमृतोपमम् ।
    तत्सुखं सात्त्विकं प्रोक्तमात्मबुद्धिप्रसादजम् ॥१८- ३७॥
    yat tadagre viṣam iva pariṇāmemṛtopamam tat sukhaṃ sāttvikaṃ proktam ātmabuddhiprasādajam 18.37

    That in which one findeth pleasure from repetition (of enjoyment), which bringeth an end to pain, which is like poison first but resembleth nectar in the end, that happiness born of the serenity produced by a knowledge of self, is said to be of the quality of goodness.

    विषयेन्द्रियसंयोगाद्यत्तदग्रेऽमृतोपमम् ।
    परिणामे विषमिव तत्सुखं राजसं स्मृतम् ॥१८- ३८॥
    viṣayendriyasañyogād yat tad agremṛtopamam pariṇāme viṣam iva tat sukhaṃ rājasaṃ smṛtam 18.38

    That which is from the contact of the senses with their objects which resembleth nectar first but is like poison in the end, that happiness is held to be of the quality of passion.

    यदग्रे चानुबन्धे च सुखं मोहनमात्मनः ।
    निद्रालस्यप्रमादोत्थं तत्तामसमुदाहृतम् ॥१८- ३९॥
    yad agre cānubandhe ca sukhaṃ mohanam ātmanaḥ nidrālasyapramādotthaṃ tat tāmasam udāhṛtam 18.39

    That happiness which in the beginning and its consequences deludeth the soul, and springeth from sleep, indolence, and stupidity, that is described to be of the quality of darkness.

    न तदस्ति पृथिव्यां वा दिवि देवेषु वा पुनः ।
    सत्त्वं प्रकृतिजैर्मुक्तं यदेभिः स्यात्त्रिभिर्गुणैः ॥१८- ४०॥
    na tad asti pṛthivyāṃ vā divi deveṣu vā punaḥ sattvaṃ prakṛtijair muktaṃ yad ebhiḥ syāt tribhir guṇaiḥ 18.40

    There is not, either on earth or heaven among the gods, the entity that is free from these three qualities born of nature.

    Varna

    ब्राह्मणक्षत्रियविशां शूद्राणां च परन्तप ।
    कर्माणि प्रविभक्तानि स्वभावप्रभवैर्गुणैः ॥१८- ४१॥
    brāhmaṇakṣatriyaviśāṃ śūdrāṇāṃ ca paraṃtapa karmāṇi pravibhaktāni svabhāvaprabhavair guṇaiḥ 18.41

    The duties of Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, and Vaisyas, and of Sudras also, O chastiser of foes, are distinguished by (these three) qualities born of nature.

    शमो दमस्तपः शौचं क्षान्तिरार्जवमेव च ।
    ज्ञानं विज्ञानमास्तिक्यं ब्रह्मकर्म स्वभावजम् ॥१८- ४२॥
    śamo damas tapaḥ śaucaṃ kṣāntir ārjavam eva ca jñānaṃ vijñānam āstikyaṃ brahmakarma svabhāvajam 18.42

    Tranquillity, self-restraint, ascetic austerities, purity, forgiveness, rectitude, knowledge, experience, and belief (in an existence hereafter),--these are the duties of Brahmanas, born of (their proper) nature.

    शौर्यं तेजो धृतिर्दाक्ष्यं युद्धे चाप्यपलायनम् ।
    दानमीश्वरभावश्च क्षात्रं कर्म स्वभावजम् ॥१८- ४३॥
    śauryaṃ tejo dhṛtir dākṣyaṃ yuddhe cāpy apalāyanam dānam īśvarabhāvaś ca kṣātraṃ karma svabhāvajam 18.43

    Bravery, energy, firmness, skill, not flying away from battle, liberality, the bearing of a ruler,--these are the duties of Kshatriyas, born of (their proper) nature.

    कृषिगौरक्ष्यवाणिज्यं वैश्यकर्म स्वभावजम् ।
    परिचर्यात्मकं कर्म शूद्रस्यापि स्वभावजम् ॥१८- ४४॥
    kṛṣigaurakṣyavāṇijyaṃ vaiśyakarma svabhāvajam paricaryātmakaṃ karma śūdrasyāpi svabhāvajam 18.44

    Agriculture, tending of cattle, and trade, are the natural duties of Vaisyas. Of Sudras also, the natural duty consists in servitude.

    Perfection

    स्वे स्वे कर्मण्यभिरतः संसिद्धिं लभते नरः ।
    स्वकर्मनिरतः सिद्धिं यथा विन्दति तच्छृणु ॥१८- ४५॥
    sve sve karmaṇy abhirataḥ saṃsiddhiṃ labhate naraḥ svakarmanirataḥ siddhiṃ yathā vindati tac chṛṇu 18.45

    यतः प्रवृत्तिर्भूतानां येन सर्वमिदं ततम् ।
    स्वकर्मणा तमभ्यर्च्य सिद्धिं विन्दति मानवः ॥१८- ४६॥
    yataḥ pravṛttir bhūtānāṃ yena sarvam idaṃ tatam svakarmaṇā tam abhyarcya siddhiṃ vindati mānavaḥ 18.46

    श्रेयान्स्वधर्मो विगुणः परधर्मात्स्वनुष्ठितात् ।
    स्वभावनियतं कर्म कुर्वन्नाप्नोति किल्बिषम् ॥१८- ४७॥
    śreyān svadharmo viguṇaḥ paradharmot svanuṣṭhitāt svabhāvaniyataṃ karma kurvan nāpnoti kilbiṣam 18.47

    सहजं कर्म कौन्तेय सदोषमपि न त्यजेत् ।
    सर्वारम्भा हि दोषेण धूमेनाग्निरिवावृताः ॥१८- ४८॥
    sahajaṃ karma kaunteya sadoṣam api na tyajet sarvārambhā hi doṣeṇa dhūmenāgnir ivāvṛtāḥ 18.48

    असक्तबुद्धिः सर्वत्र जितात्मा विगतस्पृहः ।
    नैष्कर्म्यसिद्धिं परमां संन्यासेनाधिगच्छति ॥१८- ४९॥
    asaktabuddhiḥ sarvatra jitātmā vigataspṛhaḥ naiṣkarmyasiddhiṃ paramāṃ saṃnyāsenādhigacchati 18.49

    सिद्धिं प्राप्तो यथा ब्रह्म तथाप्नोति निबोध मे ।
    समासेनैव कौन्तेय निष्ठा ज्ञानस्य या परा ॥१८- ५०॥
    siddhiṃ prāpto yathā brahma tathāpnoti nibodha me samāsenaiva kaunteya niṣṭhā jñānasya yā parā 18.50

    बुद्ध्या विशुद्ध्या युक्तो धृत्यात्मानं नियम्य च ।
    शब्दादीन्विषयांस्त्यक्त्वा रागद्वेषौ व्युदस्य च ॥१८- ५१॥
    buddhyā viśuddhayā yukto dhṛtyātmānaṃ niyamya ca śabdādīn viṣayāṃs tyaktvā rāgadveṣau vyudasya ca 18.51

    विविक्तसेवी लघ्वाशी यतवाक्कायमानसः ।
    ध्यानयोगपरो नित्यं वैराग्यं समुपाश्रितः ॥१८- ५२॥
    viviktasevī laghvāśī yatavākkāyamānasaḥ dhyānayogaparo nityaṃ vairāgyaṃ samupāśritaḥ 18.52

    अहंकारं बलं दर्पं कामं क्रोधं परिग्रहम् ।
    विमुच्य निर्ममः शान्तो ब्रह्मभूयाय कल्पते ॥१८- ५३॥
    ahaṃkāraṃ balaṃ darpaṃ kāmaṃ krodhaṃ parigraham vimucya nirmamaḥ śānto brahmabhūyāya kalpate 18.53

    Every man, engaged in his own duties, attains to perfection. Hear now how one obtains perfection by application to his duties. Him from whom are the movements of all beings, Him by whom all this is pervaded, worshipping him by (the performance of) one's own duty, one obtaineth perfection. Better is one's own duty though performed faultily than another's duty well-performed. Performing the duty prescribed by (one's own) nature, one incurreth no sin. One must not abandon, O son of Kunti, one's natural duty though tainted with evil, for all actions are enveloped by evil like fire by smoke.

    He whose mind is unattached everywhere, who hath subdued his self, and whose desire hath departed, obtaineth, through renunciation, the supreme perfection of freedom from work. Learn from me, only in brief, O son of Kunti, how one, having obtained (this kind of) perfection, attaineth to Brahma which is the supreme end of knowledge.

    • Endued with a pure mind,
    • and restraining his self by constancy,
    • renouncing sound and other objects of sense,
    • and casting off affection and aversion,
    • he who resideth in a lonely place,
    • eateth little,
    • and restraineth speech, body, and mind,
    • who is ever intent on meditation and abstraction,
    • who hath recourse to indifference,
    • who, abandoning egoism, violence, pride, lust, wrath, and (all) surroundings,
    • hath been freed from selfishness
    • and is tranquil (in mind),
    becometh fit for assimilation with Brahma.

    ब्रह्मभूतः प्रसन्नात्मा न शोचति न काङ्क्षति ।
    समः सर्वेषु भूतेषु मद्भक्तिं लभते पराम् ॥१८- ५४॥
    brahmabhūtaḥ prasannātmā na śocati na kāṅkṣati samaḥ sarveṣu bhūteṣu madbhaktiṃ labhate parām 18.54

    Becoming one with Brahma, tranquil in spirit, (such a) one grieveth not, desireth not; alike to all beings, he obtaineth the highest devotion to Me.

    भक्त्या मामभिजानाति यावान्यश्चास्मि तत्त्वतः ।
    ततो मां तत्त्वतो ज्ञात्वा विशते तदनन्तरम् ॥१८- ५५॥
    bhaktyā mām abhijānāti yāvān yaś cāsmi tattvataḥ tato māṃ tattvato jñātvā viśate tadanantaram 18.55

    By (that) devotion he truly understandeth Me. What I am, and who I am; then understanding Me truly, he entereth into Me forthwith.

    सर्वकर्माण्यपि सदा कुर्वाणो मद्व्यपाश्रयः ।
    मत्प्रसादादवाप्नोति शाश्वतं पदमव्ययम् ॥१८- ५६॥
    sarvakarmāṇy api sadā kurvāṇo madvyapāśrayaḥ matprasādād avāpnoti śāśvataṃ padam avyayam 18.56

    Even performing all actions at all times having refuge in Me, he obtaineth, through my favour, the seat that is eternal and imperishable.

    Command to Arjun

    चेतसा सर्वकर्माणि मयि संन्यस्य मत्परः ।
    बुद्धियोगमुपाश्रित्य मच्चित्तः सततं भव ॥१८- ५७॥
    cetasā sarvakarmāṇi mayi saṃnyasya matparaḥ buddhiyogam upāśritya maccittaḥ satataṃ bhava 18.57

    मच्चित्तः सर्वदुर्गाणि मत्प्रसादात्तरिष्यसि ।
    अथ चेत्त्वमहंकारान्न श्रोष्यसि विनङ्क्ष्यसि ॥१८- ५८॥
    maccittaḥ sarvadurgāṇi matprasādat tariṣyasi atha cet tvam ahaṃkārān na śroṣyasi vinaṅkṣyasi 18.58

    Dedicating in thy heart all actions to Me, being devoted to Me, resorting to mental abstraction, fix thy thoughts constantly on Me. Fixing thy thoughts on Me, thou wilt surmount all difficulties through my grace.

    यदहंकारमाश्रित्य न योत्स्य इति मन्यसे ।
    मिथ्यैष व्यवसायस्ते प्रकृतिस्त्वां नियोक्ष्यति ॥१८- ५९॥
    yad ahaṃkāram āśritya na yotsya iti manyase mithyaiṣa vyavasāyas te prakṛtis tvāṃ niyokṣyati 18.59

    But if from self-conceit thou wilt not listen, thou wilt (then) utterly perish. If, having recourse to self-conceit, thou thinkest--I will not fight,--that resolution of thine would be vain, (for) Nature will constrain thee.

    स्वभावजेन कौन्तेय निबद्धः स्वेन कर्मणा ।
    कर्तुं नेच्छसि यन्मोहात्करिष्यस्यवशोऽपि तत् ॥१८- ६०॥
    svabhāvajena kaunteya nibaddhaḥ svena karmaṇā kartuṃ necchasi yan mohāt kariṣyasy avaśopi tat 18.60

    That which, from delusion, thou dost not wish to do, thou wilt do involuntarily, bound by thy own duty springing from (thy own) nature.

    ईश्वरः सर्वभूतानां हृद्देशेऽर्जुन तिष्ठति ।
    भ्रामयन्सर्वभूतानि यन्त्रारूढानि मायया ॥१८- ६१॥
    īśvaraḥ sarvabhūtānāṃ hṛddeśerjuna tiṣṭhati bhrāmayan sarvabhūtāni yantrārūḍhāni māyayā 18.61

    The Lord, O Arjuna, dwelleth in the region of the heart of beings, turning all beings as if mounted on a machine, by his illusive power.

    तमेव शरणं गच्छ सर्वभावेन भारत ।
    तत्प्रसादात्परां शान्तिं स्थानं प्राप्स्यसि शाश्वतम् ॥१८- ६२॥
    tam eva śaraṇaṃ gaccha sarvabhāvena bhārata tatprasādāt parāṃ śāntiṃ sthānaṃ prāpsyasi śāśvatam 18.62

    Seek shelter with Him in every way, O Bharata. Through his grace thou wilt obtain supreme tranquillity, the eternal seat.

    इति ते ज्ञानमाख्यातं गुह्याद्गुह्यतरं मया ।
    विमृश्यैतदशेषेण यथेच्छसि तथा कुरु ॥१८- ६३॥
    iti te jñānam ākhyātaṃ guhyād guhyataraṃ mayā vimṛśyaitad aśeṣeṇa yathecchasi tathā kuru 18.63

    Thus hath been declared to thee by Me the knowledge that is more mysterious than any (other) matter. Reflecting on it fully, act as thou likest.

    सर्वगुह्यतमं भूयः शृणु मे परमं वचः ।
    इष्टोऽसि मे दृढमिति ततो वक्ष्यामि ते हितम् ॥१८- ६४॥
    sarvaguhyatamaṃ bhūyaḥ śṛṇu me paramaṃ vacaḥ iṣṭosi me dṛḍham iti tato vakṣyāmi te hitam 18.64

    मन्मना भव मद्भक्तो मद्याजी मां नमस्कुरु ।
    मामेवैष्यसि सत्यं ते प्रतिजाने प्रियोऽसि मे ॥१८- ६५॥
    manmanā bhava madbhakto madyājī māṃ namaskuru mām evaiṣyasi satyaṃ te pratijāne priyosi me 18.65

    सर्वधर्मान्परित्यज्य मामेकं शरणं व्रज ।
    अहं त्वां सर्वपापेभ्यो मोक्षयिष्यामि मा शुचः ॥१८- ६६॥
    sarvadharmān parityajya mām ekaṃ śaraṇaṃ vraja ahaṃ tvā sarvapāpebhyo mokṣyayiṣyāmi mā śucaḥ 18.66

    इदं ते नातपस्काय नाभक्ताय कदाचन ।
    न चाशुश्रूषवे वाच्यं न च मां योऽभ्यसूयति ॥१८- ६७॥
    idaṃ te nātapaskāya nābhaktāya kadācana na cāśuśrūṣave vācyaṃ na ca māṃ yobhyasūyati 18.67

    य इमं परमं गुह्यं मद्भक्तेष्वभिधास्यति ।
    भक्तिं मयि परां कृत्वा मामेवैष्यत्यसंशयः ॥१८- ६८॥
    ya idaṃ paramaṃ guhyaṃ madbhakteṣv abhidhāsyati bhaktiṃ mayi parāṃ kṛtvā mām evaiṣyaty asaṃśayaḥ 18.68

    न च तस्मान्मनुष्येषु कश्चिन्मे प्रियकृत्तमः ।
    भविता न च मे तस्मादन्यः प्रियतरो भुवि ॥१८- ६९॥
    na ca tasmān manuṣyeṣu kaścin me priyakṛttamaḥ bhavitā na ca me tasmād anyaḥ priyataro bhuvi 18.69

    अध्येष्यते च य इमं धर्म्यं संवादमावयोः ।
    ज्ञानयज्ञेन तेनाहमिष्टः स्यामिति मे मतिः ॥१८- ७०॥
    adhyeṣyate ca ya imaṃ dharmyaṃ saṃvādam āvayoḥ jñānayajñena tenāham iṣṭaḥ syām iti me matiḥ 18.70

    श्रद्धावाननसूयश्च शृणुयादपि यो नरः ।
    सोऽपि मुक्तः शुभाँल्लोकान्प्राप्नुयात्पुण्यकर्मणाम् ॥१८- ७१॥
    śraddhāvān anasūyaś ca śṛṇuyād api yo naraḥ sopi muktaḥ śubhāṃl lokān prāpnuyāt puṇyakarmaṇām 18.71

    Once more, listen to my supernal words, the most mysterious of all. Exceedingly dear art thou to Me, therefore, I will declare what is for thy benefit. Set thy heart on Me, become My devotee, sacrifice to Me, bow down to Me. Then shalt thou come to Me. I declare to thee truly, (for) thou art dear to Me. Forsaking all (religious) duties, come to Me as thy sole refuge. I will deliver thee from all sins. Do not grieve. This is not to be ever declared by thee to one who practiseth no austerities, to one who is not a devotee, to one who never waiteth on a preceptor, nor yet to one who calumniateth Me. He who shall inculcate this supreme mystery to those that are devoted to Me, offering Me the highest devotion, will come to Me, freed from (all his) doubts. Amongst men there is none who can do Me a dearer service than he, nor shall any other on earth be dearer to Me than he. And he who will study this holy converse between us, by him will have been offered to Me the sacrifice of knowledge. Such is my opinion. Even the man who, with faith and without cavil, will hear it (read), even he freed (from re-birth), will obtain of the blessed regions of those that perform pious acts.

    कच्चिदेतच्छ्रुतं पार्थ त्वयैकाग्रेण चेतसा ।
    कच्चिदज्ञानसंमोहः प्रनष्टस्ते धनंजय ॥१८- ७२॥
    kaccid etac chrutaṃ pārtha tvayaikāgreṇa cetasā kaccid ajñānasaṃmohaḥ pranaṣṭas te dhanaṃjaya 18.72

    Hath this, O son of Pritha, been heard by thee with mind undirected to any other objects? Hath thy delusion, (caused) by ignorance, been destroyed, O Dhananjaya?'

    Section 48
    अर्जुन उवाच
    arjuna uvāca

    Arjuna said,

    नष्टो मोहः स्मृतिर्लब्धा त्वत्प्रसादान्मयाच्युत ।
    स्थितोऽस्मि गतसन्देहः करिष्ये वचनं तव ॥१८- ७३॥
    naṣṭo mohaḥ smṛtir labdhā tvatprasādān mayācyuta sthitosmi gatasaṃdehaḥ kariṣye vacanaṃ tava 18.73

    My delusion hath been destroyed, and the recollection (of what I am) hath been gained by me, O Undeteriorating one, through thy favour. I am now firm. My doubts have been dispelled. I will do thy bidding.'

    Section 49
    संजय उवाच
    sañjaya uvāca

    Sanjaya continued,

    इत्यहं वासुदेवस्य पार्थस्य च महात्मनः ।
    संवादमिममश्रौषमद्भुतं रोमहर्षणम् ॥१८- ७४॥
    ity ahaṃ vāsudevasya pārthasya ca mahātmanaḥ saṃvādam imam aśrauṣam adbhutaṃ romaharṣaṇam 18.74

    Thus I heard this converse between Vasudeva and the high-souled son of Pritha, (that is) wonderful and causeth the hair to stand on end.

    व्यासप्रसादाच्छ्रुतवानेतद्गुह्यमहं परम् ।
    योगं योगेश्वरात्कृष्णात्साक्षात्कथयतः स्वयम् ॥१८- ७५॥
    vyāsaprasādāc chrutavān etad guhyam ahaṃ param
    yogaṃ yogeśvarāt kṛṣṇāt sākṣāt kathayataḥ svayam 18.75

    Through Vyasa's favour heard I this supreme mystery, this (doctrine of) Yoga, from Krishna himself, the Lord of Yoga, who declared it in person.

    राजन्संस्मृत्य संस्मृत्य संवादमिममद्भुतम् ।
    केशवार्जुनयोः पुण्यं हृष्यामि च मुहुर्मुहुः ॥१८- ७६॥
    rājan saṃsmṛtya saṃsmṛtya saṃvādam imam adbhutam keśavārjunayoḥ puṇyaṃ hṛṣyāmi ca muhur muhuḥ 18.76

    O King recollecting and (again) recollecting this wonderful (and) holy converse of Kesava and Arjuna, I rejoice over and over again.

    तच्च संस्मृत्य संस्मृत्य रूपमत्यद्भुतं हरेः ।
    विस्मयो मे महान् राजन्हृष्यामि च पुनः पुनः ॥१८- ७७॥
    tac ca saṃsmṛtya saṃsmṛtya rūpam atyadbhutaṃ hareḥ vismayo me mahān rājan hṛṣyāmi ca punaḥ punaḥ 18.77

    Recollecting again and again that wonderful form also of Hari, great is my amazement, O king, and I rejoice ever more.

    यत्र योगेश्वरः कृष्णो यत्र पार्थो धनुर्धरः ।
    तत्र श्रीर्विजयो भूतिर्ध्रुवा नीतिर्मतिर्मम ॥१८- ७८॥
    yatra yogeśvaraḥ kṛṣṇo yatra pārtho dhanurdharaḥ tatra śrīr vijayo bhūtir dhruvā nītir matir mama 18.78

    Thither where Krishna, the Lord of Yoga (is), thither where the great bowman (Partha) is, thither, in my opinion, are prosperity, and victory, and greatness, and eternal justice

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